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Comes atop a solid, tandem-axle Malibu trailer. This topology confuses even seasoned tube gurus, which I have discovered whenever I bring it up with them. Mancini, Daniel Daniel Mancini. It has only 50 hours of use since then and has spent most of its time in indoor storage. Today it is essentially a new boat and needs only varnishing and painting before putting it back in the water. Ski Nautique in good shape. This is a beautiful reproduction of a Larson Falls Flyer Inboard, of which only 5 were built!

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Well, what if we built a small OpAmp-based balanced phono stage that rest under our fancy turntable? Well, I will now continue the horizontal movement, starting with the White cathode follower I do a search in Tidal for all the covers of the classic song, for example, Summertime , by George Gershwin. After a few hundred tracks show up, I press play Autoformer Math Recently a reader asked about autoformers and if I had any software programs for designing them.

I don't, but the math is simple enough. Autoformers are like half a transformer—the good half. Like a transformer, they reduce voltage swings and increase current swings, while maintaining a constant power transfer; and they transform low impedance to high impedance or high to low. That was the good half. Unlike a transformer, they do not isolate. If Vdc appears at one end, Vdc will appear at the other end all the taps. This is the autoformer's downside More Super-Triode Ideas The super-triode flow of idea continues.

Rather than resume where I left off last time , let's start with something simple: Ideally, we want the triode to draw a constant current and the transistor should do all the hard work, but be entirely under the control of the triode More Piano Music Okay, I admit it: I love piano music.

One reason is that I can listen to it and do other things at the same time, such as writing, reading, sketching circuits, putting together kits. Vocal and big orchestral music, in contrast, demands too much attention. Because I do so love piano music, I am always on the search for more of it Must it be a convertible?

Must it hold a powerful engine? Must it seat only two? Must it look sexy? Must it handle well? Many would answer yes to all of the above. Others would pick and choose only a few.

Yet, each attribute would find a contradiction in many well-established sports cars Rockwell In previous post, such as post , I have described the possibility of making a circlotron with one fixed power supply, even for two channels, by using center-tapped chokes Joep Beving Joep Beving stands 6'10" and plays neo-classical piano pieces that he has composed. When I first discovered this Dutch composer's albums at Tidal, I thought his efforts to make fine background music—at first that is.

Thank God that I listened to the entire album. After a few repeated listenings, I grew more impressed with each hearing How long will the sale last? Until I run out of those PCBs or until my next post Hope Perhaps there is hope. Just the other day, I walked into a store and, while I was paying, the young woman behind the counter asked me if I knew about the RMAF. Dual-Use Triadtron Amplifier Last time out, we saw a B-based headphone amplifier that held but three active devices: The B idled at mA, which set the maximum output current swing to mA, which in turn equaled 5Vpk into ohm loads.

What if we drove ohm headphones instead? Well, we would get 30Vpk, which would probably set the headphones on fire Triadtron Power Buffer By adding a constant-current source to the B-based headphone amplifier we can up the current delivery far beyond the B's idle current.

For example, if we added a 1A constant-current source, which could attach to a 24Vdc power supply, we could realize 4W into an 8-ohm speaker Relays In my last post, I mentioned using an output relay to protect delicate headphones.

I didn't mention that relays can prove a pain. Over time, they can introduce distortion, as their contacts no longer conduct as well as they had when new So, while I was designing these Triadtron circuits, I kept wondering if there was any possible phono preamp application I assumed that all audiophiles owned a copy or at least knew about it.

One reader thanked me for introducing him to this amazing-sounding album. This got me thinking of which other classic audiophile-grade albums were not as well-known as I had assumed Return of the Triadtron After I had posted the class-A, solid-state, push-pull headphone amplifier in my last post, I was haunted by the memory of a single-ended Triadtron design that delivered better performance with less complexity.

What a hunt it was The triadtron divides into two version: In either configuration, one device is the star, the leader of the entire circuit Balanced Phono Stage As Google will readily reveal, I have shown many balanced phono preamps here before.

One variation, however, hasn't been shown, as I couldn't wrap my head around the math involved in its execution. Or, rather, the math I was sure would work didn't. I knew Peter Schickele only by his musical alter ego, P. I missed it dearly. I like to "digest" new music with headphone listening. Free from crossovers and room interactions, headphones offer a cleaner, closer view of the sonic landscape. Then, after I have digested an album with headphones, I can play the music on loudspeakers, my ears knowing what I should be hearing.

It is sort of like reading the entire libretto to an opera before going to the opera Here is my five-cents worth. I like the sound, although I could complain about its overly likable quality, as truly beautiful faces do not require gobs of makeup. Certainly, it triumphs over plain-Jane bit CDs, sounding very high-res, but with relatively small file sizes.

However, I do not like audio standards that belong to one company or individual Simplest Kick-Butt Systems Between a passive line-stage and an active line-stage amplifier with gain, falls the active buffer line-stage that develops no gain. Sometimes less is, indeed, less. In theory, a passive line-stage should kick butt, but they seldom do, sounding often thin and feeble, cold and mechanical Class-A Push-Pull Headphone Amplifier The idea behind this headphone amplifier was to use a single-ended FET input buffer to lend some 2nd harmonic enrichment and use robust output transistors that would not seem out-of-place in a 60W power amplifier, so a heavy class-A idle current mA per channel could safely be run Line Stages and Kicking Butt Some problems cannot be seen.

In , in Washington State, over the Tacoma Narrows strait of Puget Sound, the over-one-mile-long bridge, which stood feet above the water, twisted, buckled, cracked, and fell. No one had foreseen the event, as its cause was invisible More Potential Problems If a piece of audio gear connects to the wall through a three-prong power cord, the odds are that the both the chassis and the signal ground attach to the house ground.

This is a great safety feature in a refrigerator or table saw, but can prove a headache-maker with audio gear. More than one piece of audio equipment may do the same, so the signal ground paths become needlessly duplicated, as two paths exist, the first being the through the interconnects and the second being the connection to the house ground Music Recommendations, Drum Music I am not recommending a great singer or an interesting classical album; instead, I giving into my base audiophile instincts or is it bass audiophile instincts.

If you father was an audiophile, he probably owned an LP with train sounds, filled with huffing and puffing and squealing metal wheels and air brakes releasing. Train travel was common back then and most knew the loud sounds intimately—besides, train noises could really show off your stereo system Kick-Butt Audio When it comes to audio, good enough is seldom enough.

We desire a sonic virtual reality that equals reality—and perhaps surpasses it. How can you outdo reality? Photography shows how this is possible, as Photorealism was surpassed by Hyperrealism. Surely, you have seen the hyper-real photographs that make reality look dull and dim in comparison or nature photographs that use extra-chromatic film, which would make people look odd, but which makes sunsets, flowers, and butterflies extravagantly lovely Here are some more.

We start with a simple unbalanced-to-balanced gain stage based on a single 6SN Johnny Hartman John Maurice Hartman was probably the best male singer you never heard of before. Much like Ella Fitzgerald, he was a musician's singer, who sang in opulent, deeply rich baritone A crossover-free fullrange loudspeaker would be a good example. Perhaps because I was recently driving through Amish country, I have had simplicity on my mind.

Just imagine what Amish-made audio gear would look like and sound like. And it is hard to imagine anything as simple as an electronics device that holds but a single triode—two for stereo Hybrid Electrostatic Headphone Amplifier In my last two posts, I have shown how a solid-state, OpAmp-based phase splitter driving a tube-based differential amplifier could be put to use in a push-pull power amplifier.

Well, another possible use would be to create an electrostatic headphone amplifier I wore out my first copy and I still love this LP. This album remains my favorite from Junior Wells. This was Chicago Blues at its best More Circlotron I planned on giving the circlotron circuit a longer rest, but a great letter from Ziggy in Poland made me change my mind. Mind you, I don't mind changing my mind. Ziggy Zygmunt Jerzynski of hiend-audio.

Class-G Circlotron amplifiers One way to get to heavenly sound is to build a class-G circlotron power amplifier—but with a twist. Back in the s I believe it was the late s , Douglas Self pointed out that although class-G power amplifiers were not as cool-running, i. I am sure that he was right More Solid-State Phase Splitters Last post showed hybrid front-ends for tube-based push-pull output stages, which can be conventional transformer-coupled designs or the circlotron topology.

Two OpAmps are used to convert a single unbalanced input signal into balanced pair of anti-phase signals. After the OpAmps, comes the triode driver stage. This stage is needed as big output signals are needed to drive the tube output devices to full output He only made five albums under his name, but he played in dozens of albums as a sessions musician Phase Splitter Ideas Okay, it's time to give circlotron a rest, but not time to forget it entirely.

The circlotron is a push-pull output stage that requires a push-pull, i. The top OpAmp is configured as a non-inverting amplifier with a gain of 2; the bottom, as an inverting amplifier with a gain of Single-Ended Hybrid Amplifier So far, it's been push-pull.

We can, however, use the OpAmp-based phase splitter in a single-ended amplifier. Possibly, but then I have never been orthodox Floating Power Supplies A floating power supply is one that is not grounded.

The circlotron makes use of two floating power supplies per channel. The idea is not hard to grasp, but making a big wiring mistake is easy Sylvie Courvoisier Somewhere around the late s and early s, European jazz musicians decided that the time had arrived for them to break free of American jazz, finding their voices and rhythms and styles.

I have been a fan of Euro jazz ever since. Not everyone is, however, as many find the music either cold or chaotic or just boring More Russian Circlotrons The Russians are back with more circlotron designs. I cannot read Russian.

I wish I could. The standing joke was that FAA prohibited airplanes from flying over my house, lest their delicate instrumentation be thrown off Doug Macleod Black Americans create musical genres like no one else. The list is exhausting to compile: And Blacks living elsewhere have created an equally impressive long list It displays a circlotron made up of two White cathode followers Better Circlotrons If we wish to derive better performance from the conventional circlotron, many possibilities exist.

Start by reading post , where you will se the following two schematics Music Recommendations, Classical Favs Tim Ferriss often asked those he interviews which books have they most often gifted. I have my own list of books ready, when Tim gets around to asking me ; He never asks, however, which CDs are most often given as gifts.

I know they exist, as I get email from its members all the time, asking if an Aikido or a White cathode follower can be transformed into an SRPP. Reasons for its staggering popularity are not hard to find. For example, since many tubes, such as the 6SN7 and 12AU7, hold two triodes, we face the problem of what to do with the second triode, a problem the SRPP solves nicely Would it be possible? What would it look like?

Would it offer substantially better performance? All-Tube, Horizontal SRPP-Based Headphone Amplifier Some readers will recoil at the presence of solid-state devices in a circuit, preferring their tube circuits straight, with no mixer.

For such readers, the following design relies solely on vacuum tubes and yet can drive low-impedance headphones. Two stages are used: The one word you will encounter in all her reviews is "uplifting;" and with good cause, as her albums deliver a cheerful, spirited playing and singing. Electronic Errata In my last post, I got my bottom electrolytic capacitors backwards—never a good idea.

Thanks, once again, Merlin Often the only difference between a moving-coil pre-preamp and a power amplifier's input stage is a difference between scale, as in bigger voltages and bigger currents and, often, bigger tubes Tube Current Mirrors The second circuit from the last post worth giving a second look was the hybrid OpAmp Inverting Hybrid OpAmp OpAmps can be configured in either the non-inverting and the inverting arrangement, depending on need.

In many ways, the inverting amplifier is the better way to go, as the OpAmp's own internal input stage remains locked at ground potential and the positive feedback is unlikely, as the output is out of phase with the input signal Music Recommendations This time I have a list of songs and albums from a reader, Kerry, who was kind enough to send it to me Interestingly enough, most of the phono preamps that I have built over the last four decades have used active RIAA EQ within a global negative feedback loop.

This setup can be made to work, but requires huge effort, as the feedback resistors and capacitors define a crazy load in themsel Second Gain Stages After the first gain stage comes the passive RIAA EQ network and then a coupling capacitor and the second gain stage—or do we need the coupling capacitor?

LP Playback I am walking down the stairs into our basement, where my stereo lives, when my brain alerts me that something must be attended to, that something living demands my attention. No burglar awaits; not even my dogs need my company. I have been fooled by the LP Negative-Feedback Phono Stages My preference is for feedback-free gain stages and passive gain stages, as it produces the sound that I like best.

But forgoing negative feedback puts more demands on us, as the topology must be intrinsically conducive to clean amplification, the tubes must be on spec and matched between channels, and we must be willing to accept some drift with aging tubes.

In contrast, feedback gives us lower measured distortion and lower output impedance and far greater consistency in spite of off part values and aging tubes Susanne Abbuehl Lyrics don't always count. Long ago, a friend lent me a CD of a female singer he had enjoyed. Fancy Interconnects It's been a while since I last covered fancy wire; I believe that my last post on this topic was post Recently, I was thinking about actively driven shields and wondered if tubes could add anything to the effort.

Well, I believe they can This CD is a must have A good rule to follow is to always thoroughly inspect the teeth of a gift unicorns and examine all perpetual-motion machines for a hidden battery compartment. I know, far better than most, that the world of SPICE shelters many unicorns, magic beans, and golden eggs: His name is Ciro Cyrus Cravetto and he describes his design as a "self-bridge Circlotron.

Young Voices I was supremely lucky as a child, as our stereo won over our TV set, the idiot box, as my father referred to it. Great music, not commercials fill my ears most of the day. In first grade, my teacher asked me who my favorite pop musicians were and I promptly answered, "Von Suppe and Dixie Land Jazz. Errata Electronica After a quick review of my last posts, I found some schematic typos. These are my biggest fear, not spelling errors or grammatical errors. Those who read my words can usually figure out what I meant to say.

Not so with schematics, as very few "read" electronics Visch wrote a letter to the UK electronics magazine, Wireless World, which the magazine published in its April issue, page I remember seeing the letter and its schematic, but not in the year it came out We will use a 6AS7 double-triode tube in the following examples, as it can draw a lot of current at relatively low plate voltages—and it is relatively cheap and widely available Bastode Anti-2gm Power Buffer We finally arrive.

Here is where I wanted to begin, but thought it better to slowly move up to the final circuit. Thus, I began with Nico M. Visch's output stage and end here with a bastode-based power buffer, one powerful enough to drive 8-ohm loudspeakers to 30W. Moreover, the final design exhibits a constant-gm output stage The quasi OTL design used a solid-state power buffer to get more power output.

The only problem is that very few ready-made unity-gain power buffers are available The triode idled at 0. Although I find this prejudice silly in the extreme, I must acknowledge that it is widely held. We can DC couple the output, if we are careful. Here is an example of not being careful This is precisely why the output transformer was invented, as it compresses voltage swings, but expands current swings Music Recommendations Okay, this looks like a tradition in the making.

As I have more posts to make before I die, I worry that I will not be able to recommend more albums. I say that as a man who owns over 2, CDs. In the last post, we saw my latest project: Aikido noval line-stage amplifier. This prompted a reader, Raj, to ask which was better PCB or point-to-point wiring, in terms of sonic performance? PCB Meets Point-to-Point Wiring Both PCB and point-to-point wiring can be art forms, but an artistically laid out point-to-point wiring assembly can dazzle, as it can exemplify an intelligent, artistic design, much like a show car's sumptuous engine compartment, where all the ignition flow along parallel paths and meet in tight bundles and where nothing sticks out or seems haphazardly placed He didn't expect big watts, just sweet sound One trick we can use is to configure the output stage for push-pull operation which will effectively quadruple the maximum output power, bringing us to a staggering 4W Gates should stop giving his money to questionable charities, particularly in the developing countries, and build a few big, beautiful things like the Eiffel Tower or build many small wonderful things like many high-tech museums throughout America Music Recommendations Last year, a reader sent me this request.

Love the music and recording is phenomenal. Maybe with some comments. I have been meaning to take Sergey's advice, but I have been hesitant Pretty Boxes Over two decades ago, a highly successful maker of high-end audio gear whispered to me at a Stereophile Show, "To be honest, I didn't make any money until I discovered the secret of high-end audio. Output stage, phase splitter, input stage, gm-doubling and its elimination—all in one post.

I get dizzy just thinking about it all. Gizmo Harvey Rosenberg encouraged me to place above my computer monitor a placard that read "Baby Steps. The Alternative An alternative way we can "balance" the long-tail phase splitter is the following.

I covered this variation before, 11years ago, in post Dang does time fly. This post is definitely checking out as it goes into the issue of drive balance as well Alternative-2 Balanced-Drive Simple is easy.

Simple and effective is almost impossible. After several false and far too elaborate starts, the following solution just plopped into my mind In my last post, the Brazilian OTL schematic held a wrong resistor value, which I only discovered after looking through my old notes. All the schematics have been updated, including the one in the PDF. The errant resistor was found below the top cathode follower that uses two cathode resistors in series; the top resistor was and should be 7.

A small difference, true enough, but it was an embarrassing mistake for me to make, as my implicit criticism of previous OTL designs were their failure to ensure balance I treasure this book, as it is filled with gobs of great articles on MOSFET applications and design issues in power supplies and amplifiers.

Hybrid Headphone Amplifier The last old memory to trickle back into my mind was that I had long ago designed a fully symmetrical hybrid OTL amplifier that used both PNP and NPN transistors to create a constant-transconductance output stage.

Although the intended load is 32 ohms to ohms, the topology is not restricted to just headphone use This buffer circuit accepts a balanced pair of input signals and delivers an unbalanced output signal.

It offers common-mode rejection and a low output impedance. Reader, Jan, emailed me to point out a Russian audio forum where the following circuit was being discussed Back to OTL Designs For us tube-loving folk, the ideal tube power amplifier would be both output transformer and coupling capacitor free, the output tubes pouring forth their torrent of electrons directly into the loudspeaker.

Such an amplifier would be ideal because both output transformers and coupling capacitors are far from ideal. So far from ideal, in fact, that an OTL power amplifier, which is a truly crazy idea, begins to make sense Actually, his request was not that wide open, as he specified a cluster of tubes that had to be used. I liked it so much that I bought fancy, extra-wide paper for my Canon ink-jet printer and printed the schematic on the 13 by 19 inch paper, which was suitable for framing, except that I could not find a frame Just as Superman boldly wears the letter "S" across his chest, I often wear T-shirts that display either tube outlines or tube base pin-outs or tube circuits.

The problem I encounter is that dang few know what a tube is Copies and Reproductions and Retro-New Those who deal in old paper prints have an elaborate array of similar nouns: Each noun means something different, although to our eyes, each result looks the same Old-School Cathode-Coupled Amplifiers I was sure that my last post would end the cathode-coupled amplifier thread; no such luck, as I have yet to clear my backlog of cathode-coupled amplifier circuits.

What happens is that a seed circuit spawns many variations, each of which in turn spawns other variations. Does it ever end? No, not as far as I can tell Well, Bruce Rozenbilt managed to combine the SRPP with a cathode-coupled amplifier and he called it a "grounded-grid preamp. Hybrid Cathode-Coupled Amplifiers In my last post, we saw a current mirror being used to load the cathode-coupled amplifier.

Well, we can turn the current mirror around, so the input triode's plate works into a compliant constant-current source, a constant-current source that tracks the current flow through the right triode More Cathode-Coupled Amplifiers Having made over fifteen posts on the topic of the cathode-coupled amplifier, what more can I say?

Well, if nothing else, I could bring up some of the past cathode-coupled amplifier circuits that I believe deserve added attention—but this practice is something I have tried to avoid, particularly in the early years of posting. What is the point of duplicating one's past efforts?

Aikido Cathode-coupled amplifier In its simplest form, the Aikido cathode-coupled amplifier consists of two triodes and a handful, a very small handful, of parts. It goal is to dramatically improve the cathode-coupled amplifier's power-supply-rejection ratio, which in the standard version disappoints grievously Current-Mirror Cathode-Coupled Amplifier I revealed this topology back in post , but the versions that I showed all used a negative power-supply rail, which allowed DC coupling at the input.

On the other hand, if no negative power-supply rail is available or if we can live with an input coupling capacitor, then the following design is the way to go Cascoded Differential Amplifier Since that last circuit departed from the theme of strict cathode-coupled amplifiers, I might as well go over the cascoded differential amplifier, which at least holds two coupled cathodes.

This topology is also known as the Hedge circuit Blast from the past: Aikido SE Output Stage It is time to review good ideas from past posts that I believe deserve a second look, a good hard look. The following schematic was shown in post , back in Sound Treatment Last year, we had our basement finished.

Interestingly enough, it sounded better unfinished, as the many bookcases and part shelves worked as sound diffusers. Now, with painted walls and far fewer bookcases, the stereo image suffered Cathode-Coupled Amplifiers I just made a Google search of "cathode-coupled amplifiers" and I was surprised: What can you do?

Well, you could contact the battery factory and ask for a three-terminal 9V battery, with the middle terminal attached to the center of the six 1. If they won't go for that, ask them to make the metal case attach at the center of the six cells. What, they still won't go for your request? Or, say you have a closet filled with leftover switcher wallwarts, the remains of old electron gear long ago tossed, but none of which are bipolar in design.

The only workaround left is to create a virtual ground AC Solutions One workaround is to use two rectifiers and two power-supply reservoir capacitors with the external AC voltage source, say an AC wallwart Shunt Virtual Ground Circuits I know that many are wondering why we couldn't just replace the resistors in the following circuit with zener diodes, which would overcome the circuit's inability to sustain DC current flow from just one power-supply rail to the virtual ground Diamond-Based Rail Splitters The diamond unity-gain buffer offers a low output impedance and low distortion without resorting to a global negative feedback loop and an internal amplifier.

Of course, we can build our own diamonds out of discrete parts Class-B Rail-Splitting Virtual Ground We have seen high-current shunt rail-splitter circuit, so let's now look at the other extreme, low-current at idle class-B virtual-ground designs. Class-B output stages hold at least two output devices that run under an idle current as low as possible, without actually shutting off completely.

Well, the following design holds a class-B output stage configured as a power supply rail splitter Class-AB Virtual Ground A Class-AB output stage holds at least two output devices that run under an idle current less than class-A would demand and higher than what class-B would require. Today, we can rail-to-rail OpAmps that run off as little as 3 volts of power-supply differential. The following hybrid design runs such an OpAmp under just 4Vdc Aikido Hybrid Amplifiers While searching through my huge store old SPICE circuits I have designed over the last two decades, I found this interesting Aikido hybrid design, perfect for driving low-ohmage headphones.

What makes it interesting are three features: I prefer running a slightly lower heater voltage, as it extends the tube life Magic Mu The Aikido hybrid gain stage eliminates so much power-supply noise from its output due to its topology being a disguised differential amplifier. Remember the key advantage to the differential amplifier is that only passes difference, while ignoring common signals.

Think of being like a vending machine that only accepts valid bills and coins, while returning counterfeit money. Class-A2 and Single-Ended If audio-electronics world possessed stand-up comedians, they wouldn't be short of material. Hell, I could probably do an entire stand-up routine devoted to audio salesman, save for the fact that few under the age of 50 have ever encountered one, as they are quickly becoming as extinct as TV repairmen Maybe only one audio power amplifier out of a million is a current-output design.

Many of the tube amplifiers being made today are feedback-free efforts, which present far higher output impedances than an old tube amplifier with a high-feedback ratio, such as the Citation Two design—and vastly higher output impedances than any self-respecting solid-state power amplifier Super-Triode Zen SE Amplifier The following design adds a triode to a Zen single-ended amplifier, so that the triode can impose its amplification factor upon the output signal.

In other words, a Super-Triode design The artist group avoids math, algorithms, and detailed procedures whenever possible, preferring to follow their instincts and subconscious whims.

The scientists types can divide by 12 in their heads, but would never trust the result, preferring the certainty afforded by a hand calculator Climbing the Ladder To move up the performance ladder requires a bit more work. A truly good place to start, I must say with a shameful abandonment of modesty, is post , whose title is Single-Ended Power Amplifier Design Upside-Down Auto Bias Cathode bias can be accomplished in many ways.

The constant-current source establishes a fixed current flow through the output tube—period. The cathode resistor or zener require some trial and error to get the desired idle current flow; and once arrived at, my over time, drift of target, as the output tube ages Super-triode functioning, in other words. An Down-Upside-Down Variation When we use a constant-current source to cathode-bias an output tube, we must bypass with a large-valued capacitor, which means that we lose any possible improvement in PSRR.

The following topology uses a constant-current source to auto-bias the amplifier and delivers a stellar PSRR enhancement Single-Ended Amplifiers Single-ended amplifiers are ear pleasing.

As I put it back in post , "A well-executed single-ended amplifier sounds as smooth as polished marble and as strong as the muscled fellow who can do one-arm pull ups. This makes sense, as the split-load phase splitter is effectively a single-ended version of the circlotron—or, if you prefer, the circlotron is effectively a push-pull version of the split-load phase splitter.

In short, both circuits share the same defining characteristic: Super-Triode Amplifier I was searching for single-ended amplifier schematics—tube-based single-ended amplifiers—when I encountered the following circuit in my huge stash of SPICE circuits that I have created over the last twenty years, which is a super-triode design that holds triodes and transistors. The goal was to create a 36W solid-state output stage with a triode in charge Digital Electrostatic Loudspeaker Update I left a few details out of my last post, where I described a potential digital speaker, digital in the sense that the speaker accept not analog signal but digital code.

My idea was that 16 rings could be arrayed so the center handled the least significant bit, while the outermost ring would deal with the most significant bit I dumped the Google ads and signed up at Patreon.

I was hoping that this first post of would sport a new wider format that would automatically scale to the viewing device. Digital Electrostatic Loudspeaker It seems just like yesterday, but it was closer to 40 years ago that I repeatedly saw the "digital" label rakishly slapped on audio gear that was in no way digital, such as speakers that claimed to be "Digital Ready," implying that previous speakers such as the Quad electrostatics weren't ready.

Nonsense, complete nonsense, which reminded me of the famous quote from George Orwell, "Advertising is the rattling of a stick inside a swill bucket.

Nonetheless, this got me thinking of how a digital electrostatic loudspeaker could be made More Direct Drive In post , we saw a circlotron amplifier for electrostatic loudspeakers, which was both push-pull and direct-drive, as no output transformer was used. The circlotron's downside is it's need for two floating power supplies per channel. In addition, it requires two floating DACs per channel. Ideally, we want a single DAC or a just plain analog signal input to be at ground potential.

This is a lot to ask, however, as we want the amplifier's output to swing hundreds—if not thousands—of volts Seeing this ad brought back fond memories of my best Christmas tree ever This arrangement takes advantage of solid-state power amplifier's ability to swing high current, while being voltage limited.

In short, a bridge configuration allows us to get four times the amount of power output from power-supply rail voltages than what we would get with the same rail voltages with the conventional single power amplifier Direct-Drive Electrostatic Amplifiers Let's leave step-up transformers behind and move onto direct drive amplifiers. In post , I showed the following design, which used a center-tapped inductor as the load in the class-A push-pull amplifier for driving electrostatic speakers Direct-Drive for Electrostatic Headphones Speaking of driving electrostatic headphones, one idea that has beeen haunting me for years now is that of using a current-out DAC to drive electrostatic headphones through either tubes or MOSFETs Constant-gm Math After my last post, which included the method and formula for selecting geometric crossover frequencies, I wondered if there was any other helpful, but simple math I could provide.

A few readers have revealed interest in constant-gm output stages; while most have no problem making sense of the cascading emitter-follower output stage, some feel overwhelmed by the seeming complexity of the variation that looks like the complementary-feedback pair aka, compound-follower or symmetrical-emitter-follower or CFP or Sziklai Pair Tubes and Constant-gm Lest anyone complain that no tubes made an appearance this time, here is a tube-based output stage.

It must run in class-A due to the constant-current source. The sound is fabulous, but weak due to the limited amount of class-A watts available G eometric Crossover Frequencies In my last post, I mentioned carefully picking crossover frequencies so that the loudspeaker drivers all covered an equal amount of octaves, which involves finding geometric ratios.

It sounds scary, but it isn't. A "geometrical relationship" refers to the equality between ratios. For example, when you buy a scale model of a car, all of the model's ratios, such as the length to the width, will match the real car's ratios, such as it length to its width Direct-Drive Electrostatic Power Amplifiers Just about all electrostatic loudspeakers are driven indirectly, as a step-up transformer sits in between the power amplifier and the electrostatic panel.

Without this transformer, even W power amplifiers would only make whispers emerge from the electrostatic loudspeaker, as an electrostatic speakers require huge voltage swings, as in not tens of volts, but hundreds if not thousands of volts More on the Series Crossover In my last post, we explored the series crossover topology, the crossover type few know.

The few, who do know about it, tend to be big fans of it, as evidenced by the email that flowed my way. One potential downside to the crossover is its incompatibility with bi-wiring—unless you are willing to think outside the loudspeaker enclosure Three-Way Series Crossovers We know what a two-way series crossover looks like, but was does a three-way series first-order crossover look like?

Four-Way Series Crossovers I was about to write that four-way speakers are rare, but is that true? In any case, a four-way series crossover is rare Series-Parallel Crossover for Bi-Wire The following crossover is a mix of series and parallel topologies, which allows for easy bi-wiring.

The tweeter and midrange see a series crossover and this totality finds itself in a two-way parallel crossover Here is the textbook version, which will not do us much good, as we want to use use the Linkwitz-Riley 2nd-order alignment that sums to flat at the crossover frequencies But he wasn't first, as Dave Rosgaard beat him to the solution. Thanks to both fellows A Taste of What's Coming I had planned on covering some electrostatic power amplifier circuits.

So, next time we will see circuits like the following Series Vs Parallel Crossovers Almost all loudspeakers hold electric crossovers, as almost all loudspeakers hold more than one speaker driver; hence the need for a means of splitting up the audio bandwidth and sending each driver its portion of the bandwidth. Almost all loudspeaker crossovers are of the parallel design, where both drivers share common input and ground connections, as shown below In contrast, a first-order crossover has the drivers seeing -3dB at the crossover frequency.

The result is a sharper slope, dB per octave, and a degree phase shift between drivers. The Linkwitz-Riley crossover alignment simply does not apply to the third-order crossover Electrostatic Ideas, More Still Now that we have covered speaker crossovers, we can see what can be applied to an electrostatic speaker. As I mentioned in my last post, perhaps the big mistake we make is to not view an electrostatic speaker as an ideal woofer, not as either a fullrange or tweeter.

Capacitance, lots of it More Electrostatic Ideas When I first learned about electrostatic speakers, I wondered if the diaphragm moved back and forth with a flat, piston-like surface, or did it bow in the middle.

I stretched kitchen Glad Wrap across an empty picture frame and then used a hair dryer to tighten the film. My next step was to place a powerful fan a few feet in front of the frame and blow. My assumption was that the air would impart a fairly even force across the taut film.

I definitely saw the film billow, with the center extending out the most. My next assumption was that that is what an electrostatic speaker's diaphragm did as well. Push-Push, Not Push-Pull, ES Speaker In the conventional electrostatic speaker, the diaphragm is pushed by one stator, while the other pulls, which then reverses and we get back and forth diaphragm movement. At idle, with no signal applied, the diaphragm is equally attracted to each stator, which we could call pull-pull operation.

Of course, the two stators mostly ended up in a tie, so the diaphragm—aided by the diaphragm tension—rests in the middle of the two stators. What if both stators pushed against the diaphragm? Driving Electrostatic Speakers No matter what shape the electrostatic speaker takes, it must be driven by large voltage swings.

Large, close to the bias voltage swings. The usual approach is to use a step-up audio transformer. Direct-drive electrostatic power amplifier have been made, some of which used vacuum tubes in the output stage. This made sense, as tubes can withstand crazy high voltages Triodes for Electrostatic Speakers Triodes exhibit plate resistance, which is a form of intrinsic negative feedback that comes in handy when building an audio amplifier. At the same time, we must pay the price of less power output from the triode-based amplifier.

The 0V grid-plot sets a limit to how far we can drive the triode before entering grid conduction Circlotron for Electrostatic Speakers Since I have already created scores of hybrid Circlotron amplifier topologies, and even current-out Circlotrons and constant-power Circlotrons, the only missing type is one for driving electrostatic speakers For example, is ripe with significance—whether you are a mathematician or a biblical scholar or an astrologer or a Rosicrucian or a Mahjong player, just as the number is significant to a physicist.

As numbers go, four hundred is not a bad number Electrostatic Speaker Ideas Like chocolate and peanut butter, electrostatic loudspeakers and tubes go together well, as both live and breathe high-voltages. Moreover, electrostatic loudspeakers better reveal the vacuum tube's audio dexterity and deftness I was super impressed. It was a three-way design, with electrostatic woofer and midrange and a mylar dome tweeter, which I believe was made by Philips.

At the time, I wondered why they hadn't used a cone woofer with electrostatic midrange and tweeter instead. After an hour of research at the library, I found the problem with electrostatic loudspeakers Single-Ended electrostatic The first electrostatic loudspeakers were not push-pull, but single-ended affairs, with one stator and one diaphragm. A high-voltage polarizing voltage was applied between the two and the stator received the AC audio signal.

Conceptually, not having a stator obscure the sound leaving the front of the diaphragm was a big advantage. Two problems, however, arose Electrostatic Frequency Doubler Tweeter Before leaving the single-ended electrostatic loudspeaker, I must reveal an!? This is the chess notation for a move that could prove brilliant or flawed If they are made of sheet metal, they weigh a lot and must be perforated and deburred and made flat. If they are made of Masonite, they must be perforated and made electrically conductive, and sealed to prevent moisture in the air making them soggy.

If they are made from plastic they must be metallized and must be prevented from resonating. If they are made from sheathed wire, they must be carefully hand assembled and soldered together. No matter what the stator is made from, it must get in the way of the sound Inside-Out Electrostatic Loudspeaker One idea that I have long entertained was that since the stator is a sonic hindrance, why not use only one stator. No, I am not going to propose the single-ended electrostatic. My idea was that we could place the stator in between two diaphragms Sanders's and Ronald Wagner's books on electrostatic speakers.

No, what I wouldn't like is the perspective, neither close enough nor far enough away I immediately go to the 11th floor so I can go down the stairs, rather than wait at the elevator and room after room sounds good I was appalled by how bad it sounded The Missing Audio Measurement At the seminar on the future of amplifier design, Bob Cordell pointed out that measuring is great, as long as you know what to measure; unfortunately, we don't always know, particularly with class-D amplifiers, which give rise to problems that no conventional class-AB amplifier ever could The Most Important Thing to Bring to a Show For the first time, I brought a memory stick with some of the tracks I have been using to test a new headphone amplifier with—something I will do for all future shows I attend Speaking of Tidal I am a big Tidal music service fan and promoter, as I tell every audiophile I meet that he should subscribe.

Those who don't and don't want to do so for an odd reason In years past, the RMAF held a pressroom, where eager audio journalists banged out burning hot copy. Looking over a shoulder, I might see on the laptop screen, "Yes, it's true, Audiomultigasm released their new model XC-ER4, which does away with the model XC-ER3's tired-looking aluminum knobs and replaces them with big brass knobs.

This bold change came as a response to Tone Control You simply cannot mention staggering bargains and not mention what Schiit just brought out More Expensive Tube Gear Every year, more tube gear shows up at audio shows.

Back in the s and s, I had to defend my tube-loving ways; no longer Best Sound at the Show This choice was easy, as no electronics was needed. No microphones, no amplifiers, no speakers—just her voice and a Steinway piano. It can be done, but why I hope to see many old friends and, perhaps, hear a few good sounds. The field-effect transistor is often likened to a triode, as it is a depletion-mode device; in other words, its natural state is on, so it requires a source resistor to curtail its current conduction, just as a cathode resistor does with a triode or pentode.

Moreover, the FET offers a similarly high input impedance to the triode FET Cathode-Coupled Amplifier The cathode-coupled amplifier is a compound circuit that uses as a cathode follower as the input stage and a grounded-grid amplifier as the output stage. Well, we can replace the cathode follower with a source follower. The only problem is that the FET cannot withstand the high voltages that the triode can.

Here is my workaround Sadly, we cannot just swap triodes with FETs, so we use a drain resistor in the first stage rather than an active load. FET Cascodes Speaking of cascodes, the obvious cascode is that with a triode, as shown below FET-Based Bastode Circuits The bastode is a variation on the cascode, wherein the two low-impedance elements are tied together and a single current flows through both devices.

The following design is a unity-gain power buffer that can drive low-impedance loads, such as headphones Crazy Crazy is normal, in audio, particularly in high-end audio. I am not just talking about magic pebbles, magic bricks, magic wood cable lifters sorry, sound elevators , or magic electron sponges, you know those copper braided ponytails that some attach to their speaker terminals so that the loudspeaker can better access a pool of ready electrons from the drooping metal dreadlocks.

Nor am I talking about just a general want of sobriety and decorum DC Servos Servos come in many different flavors, some mechanical, some chemical, some electronic, some hydraulic, and some pneumatic. The word "servo" holds an interesting entomology, coming from the Latin word servus servant or slave , which comes from the Proto-Indo-European word "ser-wo," which means guardian. A servo is a self-regulating system or mechanism that employs negative feedback to bring about the desired state or outcome.

Sometimes, however, this won't work More Speaker Ideas I have to admit that I have enjoyed getting loudspeaker-related email recently. My guess is that for every tube-circuit fancier there must be speaker builders.

I have known and met many speaker-heads, who's all-consuming hobby is speaker building. You know this type of enthusiast, as he owns scores of tweeters, dozens of midranges, and many woofers. I met one such a speaker fancier back in Sacramento, California. He told me that he owns one of just about every tweeter made. Not two, mind you, just one of each tweeter sold.

House of the SRPP circuit. Like a stray cat, the SRPP now sort of belongs to me, my wishes ignored Miscellany My last post prompted several good emails from readers. One long-, long-time reader, Lars, asked if the example of the flea-powered, single-ended, transformer-coupled power amplifier driving a horn tweeter, while a solid-state power amplifier with a gain of 10 drives a low-efficiency woofer could be altered—quite radically Zen-esque B Amplifier The secret behind all power amplifiers is found in transconductance, the measure of the change in current flow through an electronic device relative to the change in control voltage.

Bi-Wiring Part Two Bi-wiring possibilities abound. In my previous post, I showed how dissimilar amplifier technologies could be used, either tube and solid-state, or ultra-linear pentodes and triode-connected pentodes.

Another possibility is to use categorically dissimilar amplifier technologies, such as a voltage-output amplifier for the woofer and a current-output amplifier for the tweeter. Or, at the other extreme, we can just use a single amplifier with differing speaker cables. Would it make any difference, compared to mono-wiring, you might wonder Hybrid Bi-Wire Ideas I like the idea of using a flea-power tube amplifier for a horn tweeter and a robust solid-state power amplifier for the woofer.

Horn tweeters rock—does anyone actually say rock who isn't still dealing with acne? Horn midranges, on the other hand, can be prone to all sorts of problems, although the best are just stunning.

Bi-Wire Ideas Deep in my last post , while explaining how balanced outputs could prove useful, even to those who don't own balanced power amplifiers, I brought up loudspeakers, a topic dear to my heart In that last post, I mentioned how many high-end speakers sport bi-wire binding posts, i.

These two sets of input terminals are meant to be used with one amplifier and two runs of speaker cable per channel. We could, however, use two power amplifiers per speaker, while leaving in place the speaker's internal crossover.

This idea intrigues me greatly Active Bi-Wiring Ideas So much for passive bi-wire ideas. Active bi-wiring is much more interesting, as we can do so much more.

For example, what if we build a power amplifier with two output stages, one for the woofer and one for the tweeter? Think vacuum tube power amplifiers, not solid-state amplifiers. If nothing else, we could use two of the same output tubes, but use different output transformers, such as the two below Air-Core Output Transformer Returning to single-ended power amplifiers, one idea that I have longed to try out for decades now is to make an air-core output transformer.

That's right just a fat wire bobbin and no iron Solid-state Bi-Wire Ideas Most solid-state power amplifiers are far cheaper than most tube power amplifiers. There, however, exceptions, as massive solid-state class-A power amplifiers cost a bundle. One idea that has danced in my mind for a long time now is that I would like to force a chip amplifier, such as the LM, into class-A mode More amazingly, DACs are getting better, almost monthly; and high-res digital music files can be bought and downloaded online.

This is certainly great news, but for us tube-loving folk our goal is to get hold of the analog output from our DACs as soon as we can, prior to the delicate signal traveling through any solid-state OpAmps Balanced Outputs One advantage of a balanced output signal is that as long as the receiving balanced amplifier delivers a high CMRR at its input, much of the balanced power-supply noise will be ignored. If you are new to balanced audio, check out my post and post and post , all of which give good overviews.

Indeed, I have posted so many balanced tube circuits that Google should be giving me a kickback for all of schematics that show up in their image search results. Here is one such example from post Electrostatic Headphone Amplifiers Headphones come in many varieties, the most exotic being the electrostatic type, which cannot be directly plugged into either an iPod or a phone, as they require a special amplifier to be driven.

Electrostatic headphones, unlike dynamic headphones, require huge voltage swings and trivial current delivery—just what tubes do best, which explains a small paradox Well, I decided that it was time to actually build a tube circuit to mate with the Chromecast Audio puck. Auto-Bias Schemes The Brook amplifier sustains a heavy idle current, resulting in much heat and a lush, class-A sound. But as the music builds to crescendos, the negative-bias voltage falls, reducing the idle current, moving the output stage away from class-A and towards class-B, producing more distortion, but also more output power EL84 output tubes seemed a good choice and they got me thinking about the Brook amplifier.

Designing an idle-current downshifting output stage would be easy, as the previous schematics show, but what about extending the Brook concept further? Mahogany hull and interior finishes, very clean, no rot. Full galley, with full size fridge and freezer, propane stove and oven. Two bedrooms and two bathrooms, sleeps eight. Diesel furnace, hot water heat, plus electric and a wood stove.

We have very comfortably lived on the boat for the past five years. Only a very few examples of these boast remain to this day. She made her way to the Muskoka Lakes region where she has remained to this day. During that time the boat has remained under good care, being stored indoors at all times and seen regular work to keep her in very good overall condition. This outstanding piece is now available for sale and would survey out well by an interested buyer.

This grand old lady is a Ditchburn Cruiser measuring an impressive 52 feet in length. Inside it has such modern amenities as AC, microwave and refrigerator. Built by Ditchburn Boats in Orillia, Ontario this boat has been in the same family for over 30 years. It is elegantly appointed with cabins fore and aft, a trunk cabin and a main salon mid ships with a bridge over the main salon. It's construction is white cedar carvel planked bottom with a mahogany topsides on laminated oak frames.

Oak floors, stringers, stem and keel. Mahogany planked decks and cabin with a varnish finish. Powered by 2 modern Buick V-8 engines it takes the water well in all conditions and is a show stopper in every port. A recent survey is available for those parties interested in this vessel. Italian built by the Biaglietto Yard, they now only build mega yachts.

Great interior and exterior classic detailing with the fit and finish of a 's Alfa Romeo. She runs well is solid and well constructed needing cosmetics in and out to make her a true head turner. Rare boat priced to sell offers considered. In Newport Beach California. Classic flush deck Constellation with updated engines, generator and kept in good condition. Bottom was painted fresh in Comes equipped with all furniture, china,tea set,rugs and all anything else on the boat is included in the sale.

This gorgeous Motor Yacht was delivered in despite the stock market crash the previous year. She has had a number of owners including the defense Department who pressed her into service during World War II. This gorgeous is low to the water allowing most people to step right off at the dock. It is perfect for entertaining as her aft cockpit comfortably accommodates 8 people or more. The boat can easily be handled by two and is perfect for a live aboard situation.

A full electronics package, fridge, stove, two showers and a full bath. The boat also has a Penn Yan dinghy which is easily employed as a tender. The boat has been well maintained and will survey out well and be ready for cruising this season.

Equipped with modern amenities and reliable twin Caterpillar engines, she is well suited for day cruiser and entertaining. She makes a statement wherever she goes. Located in Holland, Michigan. This is a beautiful 57' Chris Conny.

Seller has owned the boat for many years and keeps the boat in better than new condition. The boat is fully restored including new decks, refastened bottom and sides, newer electronics. Seller has spent over double the asking price to keep the boat in better than new condition.

This is a true classic wooden yacht which stirs up the nostalgia in everyone. The stares, picture taking, horns, cheers and waves speak for themselves every time she comes out of her fully enclosed slip. I am the second owner and know the complete history and can even document with photos of boat when it was new. The original owner custom built this vessel and even went to Florida to see it to completion.

There are many unique items that the owner added as it was built. I purchased this boat in and put the boat through a comprehensive restoration. Included were new struts, new bronze props, seams caulked, a complete interior, appliances, shower, custom antique sinks and granite.

This Ed Monk Sedan Cruiser is cedar planked with white oak frames. The cabin, cockpit and hatches are made of mahogany. The boat was designed in by Ed Monk Sr. This Lawley Wooden Motor Yacht has undergone significant upgrading in the last four years. It has striking lines offering a canoe stern. The interior is simple, classic and largely original with elegant touches and fixtures. The interior of this boat is panoramic and nicely appointed in every way. A full electronics package is equipped on the boat as well as navigational gear, generators and inverter.

The condition overall in a recent survey grades this boat as excellent in amazing shape for its age. I have owned the boat for 40 years. It was given to me as partial payment for painting a house for a 85 year old widow who's husband used it on weekends.

He owned it for over 40 years. This size of Penn Yan Dinghy is fairly uncommon and they make a lovely display piece. This 63 Foot Baia Azurra is very well maintained, super clean and kept to a very high standard. She is in turn condition, ready to go and should survey out very well.

Refit Arneson drives, new cushions and upholstery set off a fresh look to the boat. Two stateroom, two head layout with a large well appointed salon with new carpeting.

A full electronics package, bow thruster, generator and radar, plotter for appropriate navigation. A very large swim platform and seating for twelve on the aft deck. This boat has iot all and is ready for inspection at any time. Built in in the Craft Quimper in northern France and registered as Rescue boat in Anchor lift, wind station, generator.

Forward cabin, two toilets, kitchen, dinette convert. Since then it has been a well recognized feature on the Muskoka Lakes. The boat has been well maintained for many years by Paul Brackley of Brackley Boats and is supported by a recent survey. The boat unquestionably is one of the most stately boats today in the Classic boat world and recently was equipped with bow thrusters to make docking a breeze for a boat of this size.

The legendary Sparkman and Stephens racing yacht Baruna is available. Last seen trading tacks with Bolero on San Francisco Bay. Baruna is one of the worlds most famous racing yachts: She is an elagant yacht with extensive refits, yet still having all her original hardware including the first coffee grinder winches ever built by Barient.

Baruna is awondeful contender for Antigua and the European Classic Regatta. Own a piece of yacht racing history. Of the nearly small, fast, versatile wooden Patrol Torpedo boats which were built around WWII, only a handful survive to this day. With its stylish look, cold molded cabins, reverse S bend stem, it was one of the first successful ELCO designs. A combat highlight, while on patrol with PT led by John F.

Kennedy , PT 48 was damaged by high seas and rescued by PT and the use of a hand pump. The rich battle record of PT 48 is an intrinsic part of US history.

This vessel is not currently running and is a great restoration candidate. This is the original jet ski designed for outboard engines. Built in Canada and used on the St Lawrence River over 40 years. It has a stable and very dry ride. Engine needs occasional adjustment of reverse cable linkage, but otherwise works well. I acquired this boat on Bainbridge Island where I currently live.

The man I purchased it from was from the east coast. His family had brought it with them when moving to the Seattle area. This Penn Yan Dingy was originally a tender on a large Matthews yacht.

The boat has been glassed and repainted. It has been kept for many years in inside storage and seen little to no use. This is a nice little Penn Yan Ensign model dinghy. She was restored about 20 years ago using traditional materials and finishes. Canvas was replaced and bedded in Alkyd Enamel.

Interior was stripped, cleaned, and refinished. The rope fender and leather finishers were also renewed. Excellent piece to display in the boathouse or at the cottage!

This is a very rare beveled chine Van Pelt race boat. The bottom has been fiberglassed and is very original. It is missing the steering wheel, throttle and skid fin. Bottom has been re-gelcoated. This boat was sold out of Mercers Marine in Clayton in Only 2 owners since new. Only 8 canoe's of this type in existence. Dan Harold built canoes from about The reason his boats were so unique is that the outside bottom of the boat only consists of 6 cedar boards.

On the inside he laid a lead soaked cloth on the wood and put down cedar strips side by side similar to hardwood floors. There is another boat like this one is the Canada science and technology museum, this is a very rare canoe. Feet Kermath R32 Engine. Had engine running 20 years ago. Has been stored indoors. Engine replaced a steam engine in a 32 ft fan tailed launch in the Muskokas. Can find boats name if needed. Electric start and generator. I am looking to acquire a Curtiss C-6 engine which around was offered with HP.

Would also consider a buying a boat that already has this motor installed. Feet Universal 4 Cylinder Engine. Has hand crank on chain on aft end of engine. Feet 's Kermath Sea Rover Engine. Motor looks to be in excellent condition. Come complete with driveshaft and prop.

Has the orginal parts except the generator which has been renewed. Feet 's Kermath Inboard Engine. Needs to be restored, but is all together. Feet Lycoming Engine. Motor disassembled, but mostly complete. Motor was running when removed from model Dodge. Reason motor disassembled unknown. Feet 's Crosley Marine Engine. Converted Crosley car engine. Appears to be in very good condition. Flashed motor about 1 year ago. Very light weight motor. Used extensively in the marine industry.

Also used in race boats. Feet 's Holsclaw Tandem Axle Trailer. Trailer is made by Holsclaw Bros and the serial number is 1E Tandem axle, max weight lbs. Good condition with some surface rust, but very solid. Tires are old, I have one spare and chrome wheel covers with raised Holsclaw, 3 are in good conditions, 1 is dented.

The trailer towed fine 3 years ago. Other miscelaneous old boat parts also availble: Marine Radio and anteana, strip chat depth finder, guages, 18 gallon gas tank, out riggers, old Lake Michigan Maps, etc.

Trailer previously held a boat that weighed 1, lbs and the trailer is lbs. Feet Crew Engine Model Loon lake marina maintained 28 hp Evinrude. My mechanic says the bore is smooth like new. I haven't used in a few years, needs to be on smaller craft. The last time out on loon lake it started first pull. I had motor since late 80's and seen little use, previous owner and marina said it was low hours as well. I live in the Adirondacks and frequently travel in NJ and near the NY Thruway and Northway so transport that is affordable could be likely be arranged.

I have a Graymarine hp engine. Engine is disassembled and has one broken piston. Engine is set up for a velvet drive transmission. Feet Johnson 80hp Outboard Motor. This motor is in reasonable shape but needs some work to the lower unit. Could also use a fresh set of spark plugs and maybe a few other minor things. Comes complete with the electrical harness. Feet Reproduction Wooden Canoe. Beautiful hand built wooden canoe with 2 wooden paddles. Feet Yamaha 9. This is a demo motor with a total of only 2 hours on it!

Weighs in at 99 lbs. Still has factory warranty. Includes remote fuel tank. Don't miss this rare opportunity to own a true St. Lawrence Sailing Skiff with mast and boom. Some interesting features make this gorgeous boat stand out such from other skiffs such as a retractable center board and bronze mast clamp.

The mast clamp makes setting the mast a simple tilt up rather than lifting which is unfriendly to the back and risks capsizing. This skiff was restored by Milt Carnegie of the Islands in the late 70's who was considered to be one of the best skiff restorers in the area.

Today it is essentially a new boat and needs only varnishing and painting before putting it back in the water. Because of it's age and design it should be a good boat show entrant and is a very worthy candidate for a simple restoration project. M White Motor Launch. This boat has been restored and re-canvassed. The hardware is original and freshly nickel plated. The acorn gas cap is polished brass and the boat is offered with 4 original chairs. The Dubrie is the correct engine for the boat and is in a crate.

It runs well and strong and has the original copper gas tank in place. Lawrence 2 Man Skiff. Lawrence Skiff has been completely restored and comes complete with 2 sets of Cherry Oars. This is a beautiful Guideboat with decorative and ornate oar locks which enhance it's appeal.

This is are boat in wonderful condition with a great history and connection to the St. This is a very interesting boat to the Finger Lakes folks.

Built by a couple of Cornell grads in the late twenties and originally powered by a huge Hall-Scott this is a wonderful example of custom craftsmanship. Only 20 feet in length and easy to handle and trailer to shows and destinations.

In excellent condition, restored by John Ford, and ready to provide pleasure to everyone on the wine trail of the Finger Lakes. Able to be seen by appointment. This boat is a proven Show Winner and has a nice pedigree. Boat has been re-done completely and this year just had the chrome all re-done. The boat is completely dry with a new interior and correct engine. The boat has scored 98 at the Clayton Boat Show and is correct and perfect in every way. If you have been waiting for a 20 foot triple in great condition, this is it.

Rollf Axle Corp tandem axle trailer is included. Current owner purchased this beautiful Model triple cockpit boat in She was completely restored before going into the water in , refinished again in All chrome has been replated since Her bottom is method with new paint.

Electrical is 12 volt system. All dash components work and maintain the original look. Dual-exhaust engine runs great with no oil consumption and provides perfect power for this boat. Fill the seats and go!! This boat pre-dates the Seabirds and is one of very few built under the Billy Johnson name. A very rare and historic Canadian boat, completely professionally restored by highly renowned boat restorer in Cedar plank hull construction on steam bent white oak frames.

Single plank mahogany decking over sawn mahogany beams. Electrical system upgraded to 12 volts. All the oak ribs were replaced, and a new aluminum stem, transom and oak keel were installed Plus all new bottom and deck planking. All mechanical systems were refurbished. The launch is in excellent condition and was used in This is a very special example, bearing hull ID , indicating that it is the prototype model for She has a very well documented history and has had much of the major woodworking completed.

All of the original hardware is present and most of it has been rechromed. The original Chrysler KM engine is present and complete. A beautiful piece of Canadian Craftsmanship and worthy of a restoration. The boat has varnished mahogany planking on steam bent white oak ribs.

The boat has mahogany decks and transom and includes an original 4 cylinder Buchanan "Junior" engine. Earl Barnes was a premier Canadian builder who built some of the finest runabouts and launches during the 's and 's. His boats are known for the high quality of craftsmanship and custom hardware. This example was custom built for regatta racing. She looks like an ordinary runabout from the outside, but fire up the engine and the side exhaust will tell you otherwise!

The boat is still powered by the same engine today. It requires a new bottom, but is a very worthy boat with a decorated racing history. This truly could be the last of its kind, a lapstrake built by Ditchburn. The boat has undergone a complete restoration over a period of three years to restore it to its original showroom condition. This triple cockpit runabout has had all of its mahogany hull and deck planking replaced using traditional brass clench nails, however we have made two modern day additions by treating all bottom planking with CPES and using on all laps.

Every single detail truly was addressed and well documented, from remanufacturing missing parts, rechroming all original hardware, custom upholstery, electrical, fuel systems. This unique Ditchburn is powered by a Buchanan Flathead 6 and offered with a custom single axle trailer. No pictures or words can do her justice, truly must be seen to appreciate.

This gorgeous example of Canadian craftsmanship is all mahogany has it's original bottom and a new deck. It offers the very rare optional rear windshield and has all of the correct fittings and original 95 HP six cylinder Flathead Hercules engine. The engine has been completely rebuilt with only 25 hours on it since the rebuild. This would be an easy restoration or preservation project. Could be used as is or brought back to show condition! This boat is all original except the Crusader engine.

Original bottom dbl planked white cedar has been refastened, new transom, 1 new bow cover board. A very nice restoration and ready to go. A fast, fun boat for the St. Multiple show winning boat. Restored by Jim Murdock of Connecticut. Featured in Magazine articles, this boat is in very good overall condition.. Rare boat, only one built with dual windshields. Boat has been fully restored, still has it's original wood decks.

This is a very strait mand clean boat. Very desirable sea maid. Good varnish, bottom is tight, structurally the boat is outstanding. Roomy, comfortable, and fast. This boat needs nothing and could be enjoyed immediately by the next owner. Gray Fireball is a strong engine and runs great. Outstanding trailer ready for any road trip. This beautiful Duke has been in the same family for about 15 years. The bottom was replaced when they purchased it and it is very structurally sound.

She is equipped with an accessory Muskoka top and a very unique folding windshield. Nice lines and high crown on the decks. Very nice used Chris Craft 20 foot Special Sportsman. The boat was restored about twelve years ago. The interior is upholstered in a medium red naugahyde material with white piping, which is in nice condition. Varnish inside and out is in good condition.

Standard equipment include, navigation lights with pole mounted stern light and flag, auto bailer in the stern, GPH Lovett bilge pump in the forward bilge, ventilated motor box, deck mounted ventilating scoops,lifting eyes forward and aft, steering wheel mounted throttle and electric horn.

Also included is a bow burgee pole with a Chris Craft pennant. Gauges include the original tachometer, oil pressure and ammeter. The bottom was fiberglassed. This is a very nice Chris Craft 20 foot Sportsman which is in need of a total restoration. All hardware is present with the boat.

The boat is in full need of an interior replacement but is in pretty good shape but has a hole in the forward section from the boat hitting a dock. Gauges are present and in good shape. This is a great project and a couple of engines are also available that could possibly fit into this boat for someone looking to purchase a complete unit.

The price reflects the fact that there is no trailer. I recently refinished my 20ft Century Resorter. The old varnish was stripped and the wood was all hand sanded. I applied new stain and 10 coats of varnish. Most hardware has been re chromed, all new upholstery to match original, new flooring, fresh bottom paint, fresh bilge paint and caulk. I ran the boat all summer in The engine runs great but the boat has not been in the water for about a year due to the work being done on it.

There are about original engine hours. Engine is an Chrysler inline 6 Fireball engine with top speed close to 40mph. There were only 99 of these made in I believe the wood is mostly if not all original with no rot!

I get tons of compliments and looks from people at the lake. This will certainly get attention. Contact me for more pictures. Current owner has had this boat since and during that time the boat has been well maintained and boathouse kept. The boat has the original convertible top in very good condition, new upholstery, new linoleum, a bottom and is a 12 volt system.

The boat is ready for water this year and requires only a trailer and Captain. The boat has a new canvas cover with long sides to protect the boat from the sun and water. Chris Craft made this model for ponly 1 year and made only of these boats in that year making this model rare and hard to find but perfect as a lake boat and great for entertaining.

This is a very nice boat that is ready to be enjoyed immediately. The Varnish was re-done 5 years ago but has looks like new. When not in use this boat has always been stored indoors and has never seen excessive sun-light. Chrome is in excellent condition. Upholestery is all good except the "hide-em" strip along the top edge which probably should be redone.

The bottom will swell up tight and the bilge pump will take care of whatever does get in. Engine runs great and will start right up. This is a very desireable hull and is quite roomy. I purchased this Coronado 5 years ago with the intention of restoring it and using it. The engine was fully torn down and rebuilt and has only one hour on it since being installed.

The boat was fully restored with a new no soak bottom and done from stem to stern throughout. Fresh varnish, all chrome re-done with no expense spared. The interior was also correct for the boat and replaced with only one other boat known to have an interior like this one. New wiring, new bilge pump, new bilge blower, new vinyl floor exactly like the original and new cushions filled with k-pok. All the work was documented with hundreds of images and videos along with a full restoration booklet.

A new FULL top , custom mooring cover complete the restoration. Now 5 years later our needs have changed and I am offering to sell the boat knowing that she is ready to go to any boat show and qualify for an award. The boat needs nothing and is gorgeous in every way.

Was towed from Vermont to Florida for restoration. Was hanging in a boat house for years where dampness got to seats and floorboards, which now need to be copied. Hull clean and in top condition. Front edge of deck and corner of transom needs to be re-screwed. Missing some stainless strips, and the words, Continental, on the side.

Inboard Cal Cadillac V8 Engine with 2 4 barrel carburetors. While not original owner, this boat has been owned since Excellent Condition with maintenance done over the decades to original design and specifications. Vintage vinyl, wood and paint detailed restoration. New bottom and new transom. Landeau Roof extension available but not presently installed. Antique 2 axle trailer and Operating Manuals included. This is an excellent user Continental that is ready to go.

Boat has been refinished, bottom is original but very tight. Stripped and refinished only one time with all new decks! This is a user boat that really could use restoring.

Boat has the original Chrysler V8 engine. The boat is complete with all hardware and Hardtop. Seller will listen to all offers. User boat, interior has been redone. Bigger V8 Chrysler engine, has original factory Hardtop and all original hardware and gauges. Does needs some small transom work in one of the corners. This boat could be used as is or restored. Fully restored boat with bottom and full refinish. This boat is in excellent condition, engine is the MBL hp that really moves the boat well, Interior has been redone as have the gauges and chrome.

Have to see to appreciate. Extremely clean boat that is show ready. It went through a full preserved restoration which included, full refinish, new interior, engine totally rebuilt, chrome done and more. Bottom is original but swells very tight in a day.

Only of these 20 foot Continental models were built between and Very few were ordered with the optional hard top configuration making this a unique find! She was comprehensively restored by Wykes Boatworks in and has only seen 10 hours of use since. Show winner in Montreal in , stored for the last few seasons. Complete with custom cover! This Greavette Deluxe Utility comes with a no soak bottom and is a real head turner.

She still has her original interior which is in good shape and the original Buchanan HP engine which runs strong. New bottom paint, port side steering wheel and all original gauges. A bimini top is also included which is very slick. A Shorelander single axel trailer is also included. The coolest thing about the boat is the way she sounds. Flags, extra prop, all safety gear, boat hook and fenders round out the offering and are included.

The flagship model of the Chris Craft utility lineup! This Continental received a comprehensive restoration in which included virtually all new wood. Upholstery replaced with attractive green naugahyde in and fresh varnish work completed in Only of this model were built between and Used each season and well cared for since its restoration.

Engine was rebuilt at the time of restoration and has low hours. Ready to enjoy and sold complete with a custom fitted trailer and custom mooring cover. Brakes and bearings recently replaced. Chris Craft only manufactured of these 20 foot Holiday models between and At first glance, this project appears to be fairly comprehensive, but the hull sides, bottom, and transom are very fair. The decks and interior should be reconstructed, and the engine will need to be replaced.

All hardware appears to be present and in good overall condition. An aluminum fuel tank has been installed and is in good shape. This is an excellent candidate for a first-time restorer looking to bring it back to factory-correct condition.

The boat also offers an excellent platform for a resto-mod with modern power and custom interior. Boat has a clear title and trailer is sold on a Bill of Sale only. This boat is a manageable size and has a lot of potential!

This Chris Craft Sportsman 20 footer has been nicely restored and upgraded with a cid Chris Craft conversion V8 engine. She features a no soak bottom and replaced transom. The ceilings were removed in , stripped, and refinished. The flooring was also replaced with original style Nautolex at this time.

Only of the 20 foot Sportsmans were built between and , and the tango red interior was only offered for and This is a very practical classic that is ready to enjoy! This forward steer Lyman utility is in very nice shape and is a sharp looking boat! The current owner has had the boat for 14 years and it originally came from New Hampshire.

She spent some time in Florida and is now back north. Windshield lowered for aesthetics, engine rebuilt, and pinstiping added to the decks, then buried in clear. Great looking Lyman that runs as good as it looks! Very nice example of the late 's Chris Craft Sportsman model. Less than hours on the rebuilt KFL engine, fresh bottom paint in , and varnish in Original bottom and interior.

Last enjoyed in A very practical model of Chris Craft; the Sea Skiff is great for entertaining, staying dry in choppy water, and family fun! This example has been nicely restored and is in good overall condition. Located on the Jersey Shore, but never used in salt water. Interior cushions are new and the cid Chris Craft engine runs excellent. This is a great, affordable classic to get you in to the hobby! Only 2 owners since new!

Nice solid boat, powered with a Chris Craft hp V8 engine that runs well. Interior upholstery is in good condition. She is ready for a bit of cosmetic work, but appears to be structurally sound throughout. A custom built trailer was fitted in A Pontoon conversion to resemble an America Paddle Wheeler. This boat was restored in and is a great novelty boat to have in your local body of water. This Chris Craft Holiday was sold originally for dollars.

More than a new Corvette of the day. The boat has been well maintained and has spent its entire life on the same lake outside Vancouver, British Columbia. Motivated seller is looking for its next caretaker! The Ames Brothers were a pair of Port Carling cottage builders who, during the off season, built custom wooden boats. This example was built in and follows the lines of the popular Rayson Craft wooden ski boats.

She was originally powered with a cubic inch Chrysler wedge engine. She has been totally restored and sports a fresh finish and new upholstery. The boat has been repowered with a cubic inch, blown Chevy engine.

Give your friends a real thrill ride in this 74 HP racer! Here is a complete turnkey show boat! Has recently won best Chris Craft at the Alex Bay boat show. Judges comment, "technically correct beautiful boat.

Records include copy of original build sheet and Mariner's Museum spec sheet. This is probably the finest 20 foot Holiday you will find and presents herself with pride.

This boat has been garage kept most of its life only outside when in use. Everything seems to be in good shape. The motor has not been run in a few years, but it was winterized before storage. The bottom has been repainted and the exterior wood was stripped and revarnished. Current owner purchased it with the intention of using it, but the boat did not make it to the water after the refinish.

Most of this boat is original - 2 owner boat. The first owner did a lot of upkeep to it. He also had a custom top made for it with screens and plastic windows. Owner has had this boat since and has recently restored the engine in The boat has a basic trailer but satisfactory for short haul or roll on roll off situation. Very few of these boats are found in the United States and great chance to add a Riva Super Florida to ones collection. This is very rare sea foam green Cruisers Incorporated which was built in It is 20 feet long and has seating capacity for It is being offered for sale along with the original Gator Trailer.

These boast were popular during the period when people began towing their own boats around the country. The boat is completely restored to the last detail and really an exceptional value. Lastly it is powered by a period correct 90 HP Johnson engine which suits the boat perfectly. She is in great structural condition with no apparent soft spots. Transom, sides, floor, seating bases, top sides and decks need cosmetics. The upholstery material is still plyable and not rotted.

With some elbow grease, the vinyl should come out real nice. This boat was always well maintained. It came to NY in 97, was used for one season and was stored under cover.

The engine's condition is unknown. Gimbal housing looks good but the gimbal ring is cracked. The boat is sitting well supported on a trailer that is included. Trailer will need tires and bearings. Both can be done if interested. One of the first fiberglass Sea Skiff's ever built.

Being sold by its original owner. This boat has gone through a full restoration and is ready to be used or shown. New prop, shaft, gas tank, interior, lights, wiring and more were also done. Repowered with a Mercruiser 5. Purchased the boat in in Marathon, Fl. Started rebuilding boat in with sand blasting inside and out of hull and cabin.

New engine, new prop and shaft. Replaced gel coat with West System Epoxy, built new floor, benches bulk head, windows, rails. All wood used was black walnut and teak. Patricia's second marriage was to Pierre Matisse who was the son of Henri Matisse who was a preeminent modern artist. When Maria died in the boat became part of the Estate and it sat for many years unused.

The boat was purchased and fully restored. The interior is gorgeous, the gauges are rebuilt to VDO specs, rebuilt velvet drive transmission, fresh chrome all redone.

The sides are original but the keel and bottom are new and have been replaced. Very rare classic, few or no more made with this performance package. This boat is turn key with many extras. This vessel looks showroom NEW! Complete new fused wiring system, twin cell batterys with locking switch.

New Faria gauges, new 60gal stainless fuel tank. Finished locking fwd cabin. Dupont Imron paint with clearcoat. Everything is new and in mint condition. Well-maintained Cobalt Bowrider, clean and ready to go for a spin! This Tiara has owned by the current family since and been run always in the cool, freshwater of the Thousand Islands in the St. It is in very good overall condition and has been well maintained. The leading name in watersports, Correct Craft's line of Ski Nautique boats perform excellent and are still desired by enthusiasts and competition skiers today.

This model has been full restored and is in exceptional condition. Beautiful gelcoat, new factory-style interior, fresh carpet, and only one hour of runtime on the rebuilt cubic inch Ford engine. Its original matching trailer has been completely powdercoated and has new lights, bearings, bunks, and carpeting.

Add gas and enjoy - this Nautique needs absolutely nothing! In this sharp-looking Elite Craft Riviera received an extensive upgrade to the engine and other systems, including conversion to closed cooling for salt water use, rebuilt Holly 4 barrel carb, rebuilt water pump, alternator and starter, new wiring harnesses, and new bilge pumps and blowers.

The hull is in terrific shape and she runs like a top. Rigid water tight hull. One owner, Boathoused since new, refinished Handles beautifully , runs perfectly, a true Gentlemens Racer. This boat has low hours and is in great shape.

Grand Crafts are known for being well built and good performers on the water. Only 2 of this particular model were made in with the only other one being purchased by Actor. The boat was recently revarnished and looks great. Last summer it was only used 2 times. A cold molded custom made Mahogany deck, matching hatches for aft cockpit. This is a fresh water boat that resides in Lake Tahoe and is in very nice condition throughout. A blue slate interior sets off the boat quite nicely and needs nothing other than a new owner.

Original and only owner used this as his perosnal boat and notes that the kids have discovered girls and seem not to be so interested in boating. Nice wooden sailboat that is easy to maintain.

Very stable and easy to beach. Hull built from plans dated USA Very rare fully restored Simplex marine engine and gearbox.

Trembler coil and magneto ignition with original instruments and lubricators. Made from solid mahogany, laminated with West System throughout. New Classic Instruments gauges.

Sharp, new boat, pristine condition, never registered. With this new boat, you can enjoy the ride and elegance of an antique wooden runabout with the minimal maintenance of a modern boat.

Comes with custom made front cockpit cover. Lawrence River Skiff Reproduction. Built by Stumtown builders as a faithful reproduction to a St. Tough nylon skin over steamed white oak ribs, trimmed in mahogany. Drop-in sliding seat rowing unit and hatchet oars. On a nice trailer but also car top-able. Expertly built by Windsor Boats in , this custom Gentleman's Racer is reminiscent of a 's design, but with a few refinements.

She is powered by a modern hp Mercruiser engine, which is both powerful and reliable. All of the hardware is custom made to match the design of the boat. This boat is elegant and the fit and finish is unmatched. A piece of luxury and a treat to drive!