Featured Tours and Tickets Each of these operations is transmitted with a description, allowing detailed monitoring of all actions of the operator. In Oaxaca hired deaf police officers to lip read conversations to uncover criminal conspiracies. Archived from the original on Independent News and Media Limited. London weather essentials Month.
A famous symbol of Parliament and all things English throughout the world, the Big Ben Clock Tower is visible from many locations in London and just about all visitors return home with at least one photograph of the landmark. As stated, Big Ben in London refers to the bell housed within the tower. The bell itself weighs almost 14 tons, and probably takes its name from the man who first ordered it cast, Sir Benjamin Hall.
The four faces of the Big Ben Clock are each 23 feet in diameter, and the clock was biggest of its kind when it was constructed. It remains the largest clock in Great Britain.
The hour hands are nine feet long, and the minute hands are 14 feet long. The entire tower is feet high. Certain pieces of the clock face have been designed for easy removal, to allow for cleaning and maintenance of the hands.
Remarkably durable, the clock continued to chime and to run accurately during World War II - even after Parliament was nearly destroyed by the bombs of the Blitz. Today, the Palace of Westminster houses British Parliament sessions, and tourists can even view a session of Parliament for free.
These cameras are primarily used to monitor traffic conditions and are not used as speed cameras. With the addition of fixed cameras for the active traffic management system, the number of cameras on the Highways Agency's CCTV network is likely to increase significantly over the next few years.
The London congestion charge is enforced by cameras positioned at the boundaries of and inside the congestion charge zone, which automatically read the licence plates of cars. If the driver does not pay the charge then a fine will be imposed. Similar systems are being developed as a means of locating cars reported stolen. Other surveillance cameras serve as traffic enforcement cameras. A CCTV system may be installed where any example, on a Driver-only operated train CCTV cameras may allow the driver to confirm that people are clear of doors before closing them and starting the train.
Many sporting events in the United States use CCTV inside the venue for fans to see the action while they are away from their seats. The cameras send the feed to a central control center where a producer selects feeds to send to the television monitors that fans can view.
CCTV monitors for viewing the event by attendees are often placed in lounges, hallways, and restrooms. This use of CCTV is not used for surveillance purposes. Organizations use CCTV to monitor the actions of workers.
Every action is recorded as an information block with subtitles that explain the performed operation. This helps to track the actions of workers, especially when they are making critical financial transactions, such as correcting or cancelling of a sale, withdrawing money or altering personal information.
Each of these operations is transmitted with a description, allowing detailed monitoring of all actions of the operator. Some systems allow the user to search for a specific event by time of occurrence and text description, and perform statistical evaluation of operator behaviour.
This allows the software to predict deviations from the standard workflow and record only anomalous behaviour. In the United States, Britain,  Australia  and New Zealand, CCTV is widely used in schools due to its success in preventing bullying , vandalism , monitoring visitors and maintaining a record of evidence in the event of a crime. There are some restrictions on installation, with cameras not being installed in an area where there is a "reasonable expectation of privacy ", such as bathrooms, gym locker areas and private offices unless consent by the office occupant is given.
The installation of cameras in classrooms may be objected to by some teachers. Criminals may use surveillance cameras to monitor the public. The devices are small enough not to be noticed, and are placed where they can monitor the keypad of the machine as people enter their PINs. Images may be transmitted wirelessly to the criminal. Even lawful surveillance cameras sometimes have their data go into the hands of people who have no legal right to receive it.
CCTV systems are often used for security monitoring purposes in organizations and homes. There are an estimated million surveillance cameras worldwide as of compared with about million in In , China was reported to have a huge surveillance network of over million CCTV cameras with million new cameras expected be installed in the next three years, many of which use facial recognition technology. There were an estimated 30 million surveillance cameras in the United States in Following the September 11 attacks , the use of video surveillance in public places became more common to deter future terrorist attacks.
In the United Kingdom, the vast majority of CCTV cameras are not operated by government bodies, but by private individuals or companies, especially to monitor the interiors of shops and businesses. Although specific legalities of running a home CCTV system in the UK are rather vague there are published  rules and regulations that although are mostly common sense, do include some laws that most people may not be aware of, including registering with ICO as a data controller if any CCTV camera catch images of any of the public on, or outside of your property.
An article published in CCTV Image magazine estimated the number of private and local government operated cameras in the United Kingdom was 1. The estimate was based on extrapolating from a comprehensive survey of public and private cameras within the Cheshire Constabulary jurisdiction.
This works out as an average of one camera for every 32 people in the UK, although the density of cameras varies greatly from place to place. The Cheshire report also claims that the average person on a typical day would be seen by 70 CCTV cameras. According to their estimate the UK has one camera for every 14 people. Although it has been acknowledged for several years that the methodology behind this figure is flawed,  it has been widely quoted.
Furthermore, the figure of , for Greater London is often confused with the figure for the police and local government operated cameras in the City of London , which was about in Research conducted by the Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research and based on a survey of all Scottish local authorities, identified that there are over 2, public space CCTV cameras in Scotland.
Defra made it legal in to have all Abbatoirs in the UK now covered by CCTV to prevent cruelty to animals during the slaughter process. Project SCRAM is a policing effort by the Halton Regional Police Service to register and help consumers understand the complex issues of privacy and safety that confront households when dealing with installations of home security systems.
A wide-ranging effort to provide registration and monitoring of home security and systems. Residential video surveillance cameras can deter criminals from entering the area, can prevent crimes from occurring and help solve crimes by providing valuable evidence to the police.
In South Africa due to the high crime rate CCTV surveillance is widely prevalent but the country has been slow to implement the latest technology e. Material collected by surveillance cameras has been used as a tool in post-event forensics to identify tactics, techniques and perpetrators of terrorist attacks.
Many civil liberties campaign groups, academics and consultants have published research papers into CCTV systems. Opponents of CCTV point out the loss of privacy of people under surveillance, and the negative impact of surveillance on civil liberties.
Furthermore, they argue that CCTV displaces crime, rather than reducing it. Proponents of CCTV cameras argue that cameras are effective at deterring and solving crime, and that appropriate regulation and legal restrictions on surveillance of public spaces can provide sufficient protections so that an individual's right to privacy can reasonably be weighed against the benefits of surveillance.
Furthermore, while it is true that there may be scenarios wherein a person's right to public privacy can be both reasonably and justifiably compromised, some scholars have argued that such situations are so rare as to not sufficiently warrant the frequent compromising of public privacy rights that occurs in regions with widespread CCTV surveillance.
For example, in her book Setting the Watch: Privacy and the Ethics of CCTV Surveillance , Beatrice von Silva-Tarouca Larsen argues that CCTV surveillance is ethically permissible only in "certain restrictively defined situations", such as when a specific location has a "comprehensively documented and significant criminal threat".
She concludes that CCTV surveillance should therefore be reserved for specific circumstances in which there are clear and reasonably demonstrated benefits to its implementation and few ethical compromises.
In the United States , the Constitution does not explicitly include the right to privacy although the Supreme Court has said several of the amendments to the Constitution implicitly grant this right. All countries in the European Union are signatories to the European Convention on Human Rights which protects individual rights including the right to privacy. In , the successor to the Data Protection Agency, the Information Commissioner's Office clarified that this required registration of all CCTV systems with the Commissioner, and prompt deletion of archived recordings.
However, subsequent case law Durant vs. A report by the UK Information Commissioner's Office, highlighted the need for the public to be made more aware of the growing use of surveillance and the potential impact on civil liberties. In , the UK government enacted the Protection of Freedoms Act which includes several provisions related to controlling and restricting the collection, storage, retention, and use of information about individuals. Under this Act, the Home Office published a code of practice in for the use of surveillance cameras by government and local authorities.
The aim of the code is to help ensure their use is "characterised as surveillance by consent, and such consent on the part of the community must be informed consent and not assumed by a system operator. Surveillance by consent should be regarded as analogous to policing by consent. In Canada , the use of video surveillance has grown very rapidly. In Ontario , both the municipal and provincial versions of the Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act outline very specific guidelines that control how images and information can be gathered by this method and or released.
In Sweden , the use of CCTV in public spaces is nationally regulated; requiring permits for any operator incl. In an opinion poll commissioned by Lund University in August , the general public of Sweden were asked to choose one measure that would ensure their need for privacy when subject to CCTV-operation in public spaces.
Computer-controlled cameras can identify, track, and categorize objects in their field of view. Video content analysis VCA is the capability of automatically analyzing video to detect and determine temporal events not based on a single image. As such, it can be seen as the automated equivalent of the biological visual cortex. A system using VCA can recognize changes in the environment and even identify and compare objects in the database using size, speed, and sometimes colour.
The camera's actions can be programmed based on what it is "seeing". For example; an alarm can be issued if an object has moved in a certain area, or if a painting is missing from a wall, or if a smoke or fire is detected, or if running people are detected, or if fallen people are detected and if someone has spray painted the lens, as well as video loss, lens cover, defocus and other so called camera tampering events. VCA analytics can also be used to detect unusual patterns in an environment.
The system can be set to detect anomalies in a crowd, for instance a person moving in the opposite direction in airports where passengers are supposed to walk only in one direction out of a plane or in a subway where people are not supposed to exit through the entrances. VCA can track people on a map by calculating their position from the images. It is then possible to link many cameras and track a person through an entire building or area. This can allow a person to be followed without having to analyze many hours of film.
Currently the cameras have difficulty identifying individuals from video alone, but if connected to a key-card system, identities can be established and displayed as a tag over their heads on the video. There is also a significant difference in where the VCA technology is placed, either the data is being processed within the cameras on the edge or by a centralized server.
Both technologies have their pros and cons. A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source.
One of the ways to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database. The combination of CCTV and facial recognition has been tried as a form of mass surveillance , but has been ineffective because of the low discriminating power of facial recognition technology and the very high number of false positives generated.
This type of system has been proposed to compare faces at airports and seaports with those of suspected terrorists or other undesirable entrants. Insta Types of body-movement behavior, or particular types of clothing or baggage. To many, the development of CCTV in public areas, linked to computer databases of people's pictures and identity, presents a serious breach of civil liberties.
Conservative critics fear the possibility that one would no longer have anonymity in public places. Comparatively harmless are people counter systems. They use CCTV equipment as front end eyes of devices which perform shape recognition technology in order to identify objects as human beings and count people passing pre-defined areas.
Most CCTV systems may record and store digital video and images to a digital video recorder DVR or, in the case of IP cameras, directly to a server, either on-site or offsite. There is a cost in the retention of the images produced by CCTV systems. The amount and quality of data stored on storage media is subject to compression ratios, images stored per second, image size and is effected by the retention period of the videos or images.
Recordings may be retained for a preset amount of time and then automatically archived, overwritten or deleted, the period being determined by the organisation that generated them. Closed-circuit digital photography CCDP is more suited for capturing and saving recorded high-resolution photographs, whereas closed-circuit television CCTV is more suitable for live-monitoring purposes. However, an important feature of some CCTV systems is the ability to take high resolution images of the camera scene, e.
Images taken with a digital still camera often have higher resolution than those taken with some video cameras. Increasingly, low-cost high-resolution digital still cameras can also be used for CCTV purposes. Images may be monitored remotely when the computer is connected to a network. It is estimated that was the first year that IP cameras outsold analog cameras. IP can optionally be transmitted across the public internet, allowing users to view their cameras through any internet connection available through a computer or a phone, this is considered remote access.
For professional or public infrastructure security applications, IP video is restricted to within a private network or VPN ,  or can be recorded onto a remote server. The city of Chicago operates a networked video surveillance system which combines CCTV video feeds of government agencies with those of the private sector, installed in city buses, businesses, public schools, subway stations, housing projects etc.
It is estimated to incorporate the video feeds of a total of 15, cameras. The system is used by Chicago's Office of Emergency Management in case of an emergency call: While the system is far too vast to allow complete real-time monitoring, it stores the video data for later usage in order to provide possible evidence in criminal cases. It uses a network protocol called Television Network Protocol to allow access to many more cameras than each individual system owner could afford to run and maintain.
The Glynn County Police Department uses a wireless mesh-networked system of portable battery-powered tripods for live megapixel video surveillance and central monitoring of tactical police situations. The systems can be used either on a stand-alone basis with secure communications to nearby police laptops, or within a larger mesh system with multiple tripods feeding video back to the command vehicle via wireless, and to police headquarters via 3G.
Integrated systems allow different security systems, like CCTV, access control, intruder alarms and intercoms to operate together. For example, when an intruder alarm is activated, CCTV cameras covering the intrusion area are recorded at a higher frame rate and transmitted to an Alarm Receiving Centre. Many consumers are turning to wireless security cameras for home surveillance. Wireless cameras are also easy and inexpensive to install, but lack the reliability of hard-wired cameras.
In Wiltshire , UK , , a pilot scheme for what is now known as "Talking CCTV" was put into action; allowing operators of CCTV cameras to order offenders to stop what they were doing, ranging from ordering subjects to pick up their rubbish and put it in a bin to ordering groups of vandals to disperse.
Other towns have had such cameras installed. In several of the devices were installed in Bridlington town centre, East Riding of Yorkshire. Due to the widespread implementation of surveillance cameras, glasses are being built which can defeat CCTV cameras. In December a form of anti-CCTV and facial recognition sunglasses called 'reflectacles' were invented by a custom-spectacle-craftsmen based in Chicago named Scott Urban.
Unless physically protected, CCTV cameras have been found to be vulnerable against a variety of mostly illegal tactics: The price will go up depending on specific requirements or the extent of the security that will be required. Among other factors, the specific type of camera being used has the most significant impact on its cost.
Different brands can also have different prices. The type of technology used also has an impact of security camera installation cost.