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On ne peu se mettre en attente sur une table Indiana Plants Poisonous to Livestock and Pets. Its flowers, petioles, twigs and seeds are all red to varying degrees. Forest service recognizes it as the most abundant native tree in eastern North America. Age Rating You must be at least 17 years old to download this application. On your marks, get set, go!
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The leaf scars on the twig are V-shaped and contain 3 bundle scars. The flowers are generally unisexual, with male and female flowers appearing in separate sessile clusters, though they are sometimes also bisexual. They appear in spring from April to May though as early as late January in the southern part of its range , usually coming before the leaves. The tree itself is considered Polygamodioecious, meaning some individuals are male, some female, and some monoecious.
The flowers are red with 5 small petals and a 5-lobed calyx borne in hanging clusters, usually at the twig tips. They are lineal to oblong in shape and are pubescent.
The pistillate flowers have one pistil formed from two fused carpels with a glabrous superior ovary and two long styles that protrude beyond the perianth.
The staminate flowers contain between 4 and 12 stamens , often with 8. They are borne on long slender stems and are variable in color from light brown to reddish. After they reach maturity, the seeds are dispersed for a 1 to 2 week period from April through July. It can be found from the south of Newfoundland , Nova Scotia and southern Quebec to the south west of Ontario, extreme southeastern Manitoba and northern Minnesota ; south to Wisconsin , Illinois , Missouri , eastern Oklahoma , and eastern Texas in its western range; and east to Florida.
It has the largest continuous range along the North American Atlantic Coast of any tree that occurs in Florida. In several other locations, the tree is absent from large areas but still present in a few specific habitats. An example is the Bluegrass region of Kentucky, where red maple is not found in the dominant open plains, but is present along streams.
Chlorosis can occur on very alkaline soils, though otherwise its pH tolerance is quite high. Moist mineral soil is best for germination of seeds. The red maple can grow in a variety of moist and dry biomes, from dry ridges and sunny, southwest-facing slopes to peat bogs and swamps. While many types of tree prefer a south- or north-facing aspect, the red maple does not appear to have a preference.
However, it is nonetheless common in mountainous areas on relatively dry ridges, as well as on both the south and west sides of upper slopes. Furthermore, it is common in swampy areas, along the banks of slow moving streams, as well as on poorly drained flats and depressions. In northern Michigan and New England , the tree is found on the tops of ridges, sandy or rocky upland and otherwise dry soils, as well as in nearly pure stands on moist soils and the edges of swamps.
In the far south of its range, it is almost exclusively associated with swamps. Red maple is far more abundant today than when Europeans first arrived in North America. It only contributed minimally to old growth upland forests, and would only form same-species stands in riparian zones. Red maple dominates such sites, but largely disappears until it only has a sparse presence by the time a forest is mature. This species is in fact a vital part of forest regeneration in the same way that paper birch is.
Because it can grow on a variety of substrates, has a high pH tolerance, and grows in both shade and sun, A. While many believe that it is replacing historically dominant tree species in the eastern United States such as sugar maples , beeches , oaks , hemlocks and pines , red maple will only dominate young forests prone to natural or human disturbance.
In areas disturbed by humans where the species thrives, it can reduce diversity, but in a mature forest it is not a dominant species; it only has a sparse presence and adds to the diversity and ecological structure of a forest. Finally, disease epidemics have greatly reduced the population of elms and chestnuts in the forests of the US.
While mainline forest trees continue to dominate mesic sites with rich soil, more marginal areas are increasingly being dominated by red maple.
Red maple is generally not a long lived tree, but the species does regularly reach years of age in an undisturbed forest, and will live over years of age in the best conditions. Many people believe the species has a much shorter lifespan; this is often attributed to the fact that populations of red maple are known to thin out as a forest matures and develops into an old growth forest.
Its ability to thrive in a large number of habitats is largely due to its ability to produce roots to suit its site from a young age. In wet locations, red maple seedlings produce short taproots with long, well-developed lateral roots; while on dry sites, they develop long taproots with significantly shorter laterals.
They are very tolerant of flooding, with one study showing that 60 days of flooding caused no leaf damage. At the same time, they are tolerant of drought due to their ability to stop growing under dry conditions by then producing a second growth flush when conditions later improve, even if growth has stopped for 2 weeks.
A crop of seeds is generally produced every year with a bumper crop often occurring every second year. The seeds are epigeal and tend to germinate in early summer soon after they are released, assuming a small amount of light, moisture, and sufficient temperatures are present. If the seeds are densely shaded, then germination commonly does not occur until the next spring. Most seedlings do not survive in closed forest canopy situations.
However, one- to four-year-old seedlings are common under dense canopy. Though they eventually die if no light reaches them, they serve as a reservoir, waiting to fill any open area of the canopy above. Trees growing in a Zone 9 or 10 area such as Florida will usually die from cold damage if transferred up north, for instance to Canada, Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire and New York, even if the southern trees were planted with northern red maples. Due to their wide range, genetically the trees have adapted to the climatic differences.
Red maple is able to increase its numbers significantly when associate trees are damaged by disease, cutting, or fire. One study found that 6 years after clearcutting a 3. Red maple is one of the first species to start stem elongation. The red maple is used as a food source by several forms of wildlife. Elk and white-tailed deer in particular use the current season's growth of red maple as an important source of winter food.
Several Lepidoptera butterflies and moths utilize the leaves as food, including larvae of the rosy maple moth Dryocampa rubicunda ; see List of Lepidoptera that feed on maples.
Generally speaking, individuals from the north flush the earliest, have the most reddish fall color, set their buds the earliest and take the least winter injury. Seedlings are tallest in the north-central and east-central part of the range. In Florida, at the extreme south of the red maple's range, it is limited exclusively to swamplands.
The fruits also vary geographically with northern individuals in areas with brief, frost-free periods producing fruits that are shorter and heavier than their southern counterparts. As a result of such variation, there is much genetic potential for breeding programs with a goal of producing red maples for cultivation. This is especially useful for making urban cultivars that require resistance from verticillium wilt , air pollution, and drought.
Red maple frequently hybridizes with Silver Maple ; the hybrid , known as Freeman's Maple Acer x freemanii , is intermediate between the parents. The following cultivars are completely male and are highly allergenic, with an OPALS allergy scale rating of 8 or higher: The following cultivars have an OPALS allergy scale rating of 3 or lower; they are completely female trees, and have low potential for causing allergies: The leaves of red maple, especially when dead or wilted, are extremely toxic to horses.
The toxin is unknown, but believed to be an oxidant because it damages red blood cells , causing acute oxidative hemolysis that inhibits the transport of oxygen. This not only decreases oxygen delivery to all tissues, but also leads to the production of methemoglobin , which can further damage the kidneys. Symptoms occur within one or two days after ingestion and can include depression, lethargy, increased rate and depth of breathing, increased heart rate, jaundice , dark brown urine, colic , laminitis , coma, and death.
Treatment is limited and can include the use of methylene blue or mineral oil and activated carbon in order to stop further absorption of the toxin into the stomach, as well as blood transfusions , fluid support, diuretics , and anti-oxidants such as Vitamin C.
Red maple's rapid growth, ease of transplanting, attractive form, and value for wildlife in the eastern US has made it one of the most extensively planted trees. In parts of the Pacific Northwest , it is one of the most common introduced trees. Its popularity in cultivation stems from its vigorous habit, its attractive and early red flowers, and most importantly, its flaming red fall foliage. The tree was introduced into the United Kingdom in and shortly thereafter entered cultivation.
There it is frequently found in many parks and gardens, as well as occasionally in churchyards. Red maple is a good choice of a tree for urban areas when there is ample room for its root system. Forming an association with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi can help A. Like several other maples, its low root system can be invasive and it makes a poor choice for plantings near paving.