The Corporate States of America
Latin America as a whole is generally associated with short-term military dictatorships who are either Fascist or Communist. In , Ohio will have 11 income and family size. I would think that beats Dr. January 9, at 7: They're especially happy with the fact that they can walk in and the lights switch on instantly. One word of advice to anyone buying an old house to 'do up', is that you never seem to finish!!!! Louisville is bourbon country.
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Hallmark is in Missouri. Sprint would be good for Kansas, as would Cessna. You totally have to consider DnD for Mass.
People up here seem to love their Dunkin donuts and wawa. I had no idea sonic was an Oklahoma thing and allsups was a NM thing. I feel so narrow minded. As someone who was born in Texas and raised in New Mexico, I think your choices for my states were spot on.
Pepper is so quintessentially Texas and I was so thrilled to see Allsups on there best chimichangas ever! New Hampshire is known for retail and tons of small businesses. The DD logo or CVS logo would both fit easily into the small area available in which to write on the map. Im from Texas and now I live in Tennessee and you got them both wrong. Texaco mean the Texas Company,enuff said.
Other ones for Ohio: Florida should definitely be Publix grocery store… Hooters is not from Florida nor is it headquartered there. I really enjoyed seeing this. Do you have a list per state?
Some of them are very difficult to read. Best of luck on any. Love this idea, really. And you nailed most of it. But perhaps you are closer to farm machinery than I am. Love this map, thank you Steve for producing it. What are Vermont and New Hampshire? I would say Indiana is more known for steel mills even though they almost no longer exist.
Actually, from a Vermonter perspective, it should probably be blank. You guys go a long way to protect and promote local business over corporate brands. If Green Mountain, than — Keurig! Love the map and the comments.
The Amana Corporation was founded in Iowa and still manufactures appliances there. They are now owned by Whirlpool Corporation. The Amana Colonies is a great place for spending some time. They have excellent food, served family style. Thanks for the input. It seems I am coming to this discussion late. I would say both of those are far more representative of the state as a whole. Is that Timberland for NH? Otherwise — fun exercise!
They are totally integrated into building up the city. Chicagoans may not feel the same affinity with it, but most downstaters would think CAT is the perfect choice.
I am surprised nobody has mentioned State Farm for Illinois. Tennessee should be Jack Daniels Whiskey. JD is made in Lynchburg, Tn. New Mexico was a tough one. Only the highest number of PHDs per capita: But you went Tomato Soup?
Another and perhaps better idea for our 50th state: Thanks for doing this. Thousands of jobs lost. McDonalds goes pretty local whereever they are. Cat on the other hand is a unique global giant that has no rival in a very important industry. Is Firestone from there? That is an industrial giant of a state, must be several better fits than Wendys no? Anyway, very easy for us to Monday monring qb this, love the original idea and obviously it is sparking a lot of thought.
McDonalds has Illinois ties deeper than just having the first restaurant there. Firestone is indeed from Ohio but a better candidate still headquartered there with a logo methinks Steve might like….
Auto seems like a more apt industry for Ohio than pain, insurance, or houseold. But yeah, I think I ilke all of your options over Wendys. Unless they put chicory in their coffee. And Hawaii must have something more native than an Airline. Best Western began in CA and moved here in the 70s.
Ohio should be Goodyear. They are a worldwide company. In addition to the tires, they also are famous for the the Goodyear blimps. I thought the same thing, but I started to wonder and looked it up, turns out that Disney is run from California. WA is so totally Starbucks as Seattle is where it all started and it is still going but also because it is the coffee capital of the world, thanks to……. The company is located in Eugene OR. OK is best represented by Arbys or Thrifty car rental because they were started there and remain there but also because just about everyone in the US know about Arbys or Thrifty but not Sonic.
While Sonic is a good representation of OK as far as national brand recognition goes, I think QuikTrip would be a better pick. And banking can happen anywhere, NC actually grows the product, tobacco. Boeing is now headquartered in Chicago. First off, this is a fantastic idea!! And graphically it was executed very well. I just have a few thoughts on choices. I feel like it should be something in heavy industry? And, as I said in a reply to another commenter, as a Maryland has to be McCormick—the spice and seasoning manufacturer that produces Old Bay, which we not only famously put on our crabs, but on just about everything else, too.
You can actually tell with surprising accuracy if someone grew up here or moved from elsewhere depending on the number of other foods other than crabs that they put or have at least tried Old Bay on. Great map and even better reading the comments. You seem like an awesome person Steve. I will recommend this page to everyone.
Thanks for brightening my day. Have you thought about doing one for Canada? Would be interested in seeing what my country has come up with outside of BC. Cat is the perfect choice for Illinois. The largest manufacturer in the world for earthmoving and heavy equipment with headquarters and heavy presence in Illinois. It is probably one of the most important 5 manufacturers of any kind in the US.
It is really without equal in the world and in a highly strategic industry at that. They have an iconic logo, and consumer brands too… Band-Aids! Good job-on both the map and letting all the comments roll off you. It was cool to learn about the relationship between companies and states. This is a great map, and if I have your permission, I would like to include it in a powerpoint presentation for my company.
Is it permissible for me to use, and is there a way that I could edit it in order to make certain states pop-out as they are discussed. Of course, its not that well known Outside. Just some suggestions for a future map. Enjoyed checking this one out. Your map updates this very nicely. And as a native Mainer now returned, I was amused to see that virtually the only state-based corporation without controversy was L.
At least here in southern Maine, I bet nearly everybody at least knows one person who works or has worked there. And as corporations go, they are fairly benign, and they really do make the Maine Hunting Shoes here. I look forward to future editions and the Canada map! I remember going to Minnesota and being struck by the big brick flour mills along the Mississippi. I live in the NYC area. Nothing about Verizon says NY to me.
I would think it would have to be a finance or publishing company. So why not use the largest investment bank in the world with years of roots in Manhattan…JPMorganChase. Tide, Crest, Bounty, Charmin, Pampers, etc. Sprint would seem to be the obvious brand for Kansas. While Garmin is a great company, Sprint is much larger with far more customers, employees, revenues. Assume brand recognition would be far beyond Garmin. Try Pioneer or John Deere. In response to John, Hooters in fact is from Florida.
It was founded in Clearwater in It is however headquartered in Atlanta. As a native Floridian, I would be more likely to choose Tropicana over Hooters. Outback Steakhouse and Publix are negotiable. Publix has presence in only a few states in the southeast. Even though Outback is headquartered in Tampa, I believe Tropicana still has a larger presence in the states.
Im from southern jersey and my mom is from camden nj so everyone around there is familiar with its history with them. I enjoyed the whole map and thought it was awesome piece of art. So with Sprint, whose history and heritage are indeed all Kansas, true: But when it merged with Nextel, the Nextel brass in Reston, Va. Has there ever been an airline more associated with exotic destinations than Pan Am?
I checked and found that it was founded in Florida. Alas, when air travel became nearly as common as bus travel PanAm did not adapt and went the way of the Passenger Pigeon. United Technologies is probably the most iconic Connecticut corporation, but as with many conglomerates its operating units are better known than the company itself. Xerox has the same issue as General Electric, while Cigna is pretty low-profile.
California almost should be split into 2 parts. As for the comments on Disney and Florida, remember that theme parks are only one part of the Disney conglomerate. Disney HQ, the movie studio the only major one with its HQ still in LA , and iconic animation department are all in Burbank, while the original Disneyland is further south. I am from Oklahoma, and it seems to me the Sonic corporation would fit perfect.
And from what I can see all the other states seem pretty much accurate in your represesntation. Even though there may be difficult in chossing those who may be popular or more known for more then one, like wisconson and its cheese industry. I was born in LA and raised in GA and you hit those two on the mark! Let me know if you do! How is everyone overlooking Burger King as the rep for Florida? They were started in Jacksonville and continue to run their headquarters in Miami.
An obvious choice I would say. An icon in the state. They also have a simple, bold logo that stands out. Microsoft lost to Starbucks? Think of the worldwide computers that run on their products. Geico over Under Armour? Under Armour hands down. The housewares brand is produced by Homer Laughlin China Co. The brand has seen a major resurgence in popularity—very popular in wedding registries, for example, thanks to its use of cheerful colors and the ability to mix and match pieces.
All that aside, just love the concept for the map. Very cool and sparking some great discussion. Great post, has made it to the top blogs for freelancers and strategists on Strat-Talking.
While I do not dispute the H-D tag for Wisconsin, there are some other likely representatives—companies that started out in Wisconsin. My first thought for Hawaii was Dole too! But then I found out Dole is actually based in California. I think we all associate pineapples with Hawaii and assume the brand is based there.
I concede…I see that Dole originated in Hawaii and only fairly recently headquartered in California…my bad! Pepsi was born here,,, and is still going strong. I pledge allegiance to the flag of The Corporate States of America and to the plutocracy for which it stands. One nation under Currency Incalculable. With over consumption and credit debt for all; forever and ever Amen. I think that the author missed on Kansas. Using Carrs-Safeway for Alaska, when Carrs are now Safeway in every sense of the word, is just plain wrong.
I miss Carrs very very much. Alaska Airlines would be a much better choice. Started in Alaska, tho now headquartered in Seattle, Alaska Airlines continues to be an essential-and in many instances the only- air carrier in Alaska.
It continues to give Alaskans special discounts and deals. Alaskans love Alaska Airlines. The Tropicana Casino I think that was it, whatever one it was that started the destination gambling business. Every decent department store in the country sells Fiesta dinnerware in every color under the sun. Anyway, thanks for the tip! I do have issue with your selection for Hawaii; I would have gone with Mauna Loa. Informative piece, thank you! I have a question, what about Microsoft, if was founded in Washington and is worth far more than Starbucks?
Actually, it was founded in Albuquerque! New Mexico, but their headquarter is in Redmond, Washington. Founded in NC, headquartered in NY. I think their hands were pretty dirty during the real estate bubble — making utterly trashy loans along with most other large banks. Their minions were still are?
I laughed for a good half-minute when I first heard that. I still thought that picking Carrs was apt since it indicated a good job of research. Also consider Alaska Brewing Co. They are a largish Craft Brewer with wide distribution and a sterling reputation. Why are you looking past Gillette in Mass anyway? Gillette is in everyway a first tier global giant.
I do like their logo as well. It was one of the first companies to use a modern, abstract design. I may be old school but retail outlets with a clothing cachet seem too niche to really have the kind of identification with Corporate America that real corporations have.
I came across this map, if anyone sees this. You got Indiana straight in the Hoosier. I see those stupid jacked trucks everywhere here. Florida should be Publix Supermarkets. They have been in business over 75 years and did begin in Florida. There are far more Publix stores than there are Hooters. Guaranteed issue is a form of life insurance, which is also called cash value build-up, term life insurance on account of advancing age may be able to reap many financial rewards.
Deere and Company was started in Illinois in Moline, IL is the world headquarters for the company. Yellow must be your favorite color, cause we are all Green in Illinois and around the world. Both are controversial, and even arguably worldwide, but who cares about a ho-hum cup of coffee? As far as California, Google or HP would be better choices than Apple, but I would have shunned them all for one of our food or wine brands, maybe Foster Farms chicken Modesto. People see those brands every day and think of California, but Apple is just another multinational which might as well be based in Tokyo for all the notice it gets here.
A much more ubiquitous South Carolina-owned company is BI-LO, which can be found in almost every town across the state, or, unfortunately, Advance America, a disgusting loan sharking scheme that preys on the poor, and are ubiquitous wherever minimum-wage jobs can be found. Thanks for producing such an interesting map.
I would love to see what the runners-up would be for each state. The following are choices that I would have made differently:. Kentucky — United Parcel Service 4. California — Disney or Levi-Strauss. Fitting for the insurance capital of the world, right? For Utah, I would have selected Ancestry.
For Washington state I beleive Microsoft and Boing are more representative than Starbucks, besides headquarter offices in the state, they are some of the largest employers. This would be an easier exercise if we knew what the map is supposed to be of. Or is it logos? I see four serious problems with the map. Pizza Hut is the most prominent brand to come out of Kansas; the nexus of Garmin to Kansas is tenuous. Minnesota is a tough call.
Oil is the essence of Texas. Would be a nice resource for schools… for Florida I think Hawaiian Tropic would be a great choice. You need to check your history on Saks. West Virginia is not well-represnted here. Kroger is a big corporation which was founded in in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Still operating their world headquarters out of New Brunswick, NJ. Virginia should be Smithfield not AOL. You can do so much better with NY… Think of all. Just saw it featured on Mental Floss. I work there just a worker bee! Jack Daniels over FedEx. I would like to ask for your permission to use your map in a Sporcle quiz with proper acknowledgements, of course. Minnesota should absolutely be either Target or 3M.
Both were founded in the s in Minnesota and still headquartered there. Pillsbury basically became defunct when General Mills purchased it. Well bourbon n horses. I would argue that Coleman based in Wichita since is a much more prevalent brand as an outdoor gear manufacturer than Garmin even though I love my Garmin GPS and Vivofit.
Those are all started and based out of Minnesota. Alabama should be Russell. Kansas should be Pizza Hut. Maryland should be McCormick. Oklahoma is spot on with Sonic.
CT should be subway or bic pen. Bic makes the 2 most stolen and most used things pens and lighters. Some of them not as known as other bit that everyone in Texas knows for sure. Texas Instruments probably the most known calculators throughout math classes around the world. I would say Ceasars Entertainment they have 58 casinos world wide, it started in Reno as Harrahs entertainment in and everyone knows Caesars Palace.
Zappos is ok but no one really knows ther are from Nevada. GM makes sense for my state. Probably the biggest and most well known company we have. Got some suggestions for Michigan for a possible future map. Indiana should be Eli Lilly for sure.
They have had a huge impact worldwide. In my opinion, no one really thinks Cummins when they think of Indiana. Pizza Hut started in Kansas back in the s. Although the headquarters is not in Kansas, I think pizza is more widespread and acknowledged than Garmin. Its really funny when you notice there are no Saks stores in Alabama. Maybe Books-a-Million which does exist in the state and is actually headquartered here?
In and Out Burger for California. Indy race cars or the movie Hoosier for Indiana. Steve, love the map and your easy going nature with all the comments. Forget oil companies, I think Dr. Pepper is the perfect choice for Texas! A few other thoughts… Walgreens for Illinois. Been there over years and now an international company. What about Gatorade for Florida? Being from Michigan I think you missed the mark by not choosing Ford.
After all it was this company that paved the way for manufacturing today. Plus they are the brand where gm is just a parent company, but then again you could have just said pure Michigan and it would have worked too.
Washington State is so much more than Starbucks. Cummins is a good choice for Indiana, but I might have chosen Eli Lilly instead. This is a good list, though. Regarding South Dakota, Daktronics might be a better choice than Motel 6. The former is a world leader in is sphere, while the later tends to invite snickers — no matter how successful the mtol chain has been.
A more appropriate option for Virginia could have been Mars or even Microtech. AOL is a bit old and brand is obsolete. Wait, hooters for Florida? What a load of bunkum. We also love Breitling Watches, anchored in Wilton. This is really cool! Im from Ut and had no Idea sinclair would have been liked to Utah at all.
I live in Tx now and would like to say that if people here did not hav Dr. What about Frito-Lay for Texas, it started and is still headquartered in here, you can even see the history in the Red Museum in Dallas downtoen. Maryland should change to Under Armour. Nor do most of the commenters. Too many to comment. But DP over Texas oil has got to be the most inaccurate. While I get Starbucks being Washington, it must have been a challenge selecting just one brand, considering Microsoft, Amazon, and Boeing are a few more names easily associated with our state!
For West Virginia, I think you should use Mylan. They are leading manufacturer of generic and specialty medication. Here is the wiki link https: I think that as time changes, some of these may update. Currently, I believe Under Armor would be a more accurate representation for Maryland.
CT has Hartford Ins…a name, logo, and brand or sumarine manufacture in groton…. Isnt Hobby Lobby a based out of Oklahoma. Velcro is based in Manchester, NH.
Guessing that every home in the USA has something Velcro…. I worked for Mr. UA was founded in Baltimore and still headquarters in Baltimore.
If you question McCormick, then you have never been near the plant here on the day they process cinnamon yum or garlic powder. I simply stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I have really loved browsing your weblog posts. I also like big oil for Texas but would suggest Texaco instead of Exxon Mobil just because of the name association.
Oh, and Nationwide Insurance. Bank of America was actually founded in San Francisco. It was originally the Bank of Italy. Georgia is an imposter owner. Leinenkugels is a good choice. The Lovelace side of my family is from northern Arkansas.
The Lovelaces in Kentucky could be my distant relatives. We really are state of small towns and people who favor small local businesses. What program do you use to get these images into the shape of each state? Even now, as one of the largest corporations in the world, Apple positions itself as the choice of outsiders, with Jobs as the leader of the […]. It is the brainchild of Texas artist Steve Lovelace, who disparagingly […].
It is a graphic design developed by the writer, graphic artist and photographer Steve Lovelace. This visual created by Steve Lovelace gives you an idea. It shows the brands or corporations that best represents the […]. The infographic is designed with each state by the brand that presents the most influence in the […]. Shows big brands by state. No we know where companies are headquartered. It is not […]. That has inspired Thrillist to create a […]. Do yall agree with his pick for Texas?
Last month, writer and graphic artist Steve Lovelace created a map, the Corporate States of America, that featured the most famous brand from each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Do you recognize all of these […].
My email started blowing up, and the number of visitors to my blog soared […]. Here now is the official debut of […]. A chart, included in the post, details why some of the more confusing matches were made and the significance of the brand to the state. Check out an excerpt from the post below and read the entire article here! I had to check Rhode Island, […]. Here he creatively illustrates the most famous brands that represent each […].
His his criteria for what brand would […]. Here in the early 21st century, we are witnessing the end of the nation state and the rise of […]. My criteria are subjective, but in each case, I tried to use a brand that a is based in that state and b is still in business as of You can also get a signed poster if it tickles you that […].
The map was developed 2 years ago but is just now […]. I selected the corporation or brand that best represents each of the 50 states and DC ,… […]. For this infographic, I selected a brand that I thought best represented each of the 50 states. His project, which shows […]. A complete list of companies and what they do can be found here.
But as my graphic design career started to take off, I found less time for blogging. Over time, my updates became more sporadic. Toward the end of […]. You see, branding is meant to appeal to people on a primeval level.
Modern corporations use brands and logos the way feudal lords once used banners and shields. I selected the corporation or brand that best represents each of the 50 states and DC , […]. When my Corporate States of America map first went viral a few years back, it gave me an indication that I was on the right track. Your email address will not be published. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. My name is Steve Lovelace. I am a writer, graphic artist and photographer.
I created this site to share my work with the world. New posts appear every Wednesday. Check out my portfolio to see more of my work. The Corporate States of America is now available as a poster. Order your copy today! These states can be hard to read, so here is a complete list of the companies featured: Arkansas Walmart Walmart is based out of Bentonville. Florida Hooters Hooters started in Clearwater in The modern company, started in , is still based there.
Kansas Garmin Garmin started in Lenexa in Bean was started in Freeport in It is still based there. Mississippi Peavey Peavey Electronics is based out of Meridian. Nevada Zappos Today part of Amazon. Oklahoma Sonic Sonic is based out of Oklahoma City. Oregon Nike Nike is headquarted in Beaverton. Today, Hasbro is based in Pawtucket. South Dakota Super 8 Super 8 opened its first motel in Aberdeen in Washington Starbucks The first Starbucks opened in Seattle in What Do You Think?
Avoiding Human Extinction April 25, The Corporate Provinces of Canada July 25, Famous Logos in Jokerman Font February 20, November 5, at June 25, at 3: Mike from Delaware says: June 25, at January 24, at 6: February 18, at 9: October 20, at 8: June 28, at 5: June 28, at 6: June 28, at 1: December 31, at 5: January 8, at 9: January 9, at 9: May 1, at 2: May 1, at 9: January 27, at 1: January 29, at 2: January 29, at 5: March 5, at June 27, at 6: June 27, at 7: November 4, at 6: December 29, at 8: February 8, at February 17, at 9: May 9, at 9: June 27, at 5: July 3, at 9: March 17, at 3: June 3, at 2: June 27, at January 5, at February 2, at 7: February 12, at 1: June 5, at 9: June 25, at 4: June 26, at December 28, at 9: December 29, at December 30, at December 29, at 7: June 26, at 8: January 25, at June 24, at 9: June 25, at 1: June 26, at 3: June 26, at 6: May 17, at 9: July 11, at 2: February 4, at June 25, at 2: June 25, at 5: July 11, at 3: June 25, at 8: June 26, at 7: January 11, at 6: February 13, at 5: June 28, at June 30, at January 1, at 9: January 28, at 6: November 1, at 9: November 10, at 5: Just Some Guy says: June 28, at 7: July 4, at 2: July 3, at 8: Retailers can employ different techniques to enhance sales volume and to improve the customer experience:.
One of the unique aspects of retail promotions is that two brands are often involved; the store brand and the brands that make up the retailer's product range. Retail promotions that focus on the product range, are designed to cultivate a positive attitude to the brands stocked by the store, in order to indirectly encourage favourable attitudes towards the store itself. Retailers make extensive use of advertising via newspapers, television and radio to encourage store preference.
In order to up-sell or cross-sell, retailers also use a variety of in-store sales promotional techniques such as product demonstrations, samples, point-of-purchase displays, free trial, events, promotional packaging and promotional pricing.
In grocery retail, shelf wobblers, trolley advertisements, taste tests and recipe cards are also used. Many retailers also use loyalty programs to encourage repeat patronage. See Merchandising ; Servicescapes ; Retail design. Presentation refers to the physical evidence that signals the retail image. The environment in which the retail service encounter occurs is sometimes known as the retail servicescape.
Collectively, these elements contribute to the perceived retail servicescape or the overall atmosphere and can influence both the customer's cognitions, emotions and their behaviour within the retail space.
Retail designers pay close attention to the front of the store, which is known as the decompression zone. An open-plan floor design is effective in retail as it allows customers to see everything.
In terms of the store's exterior, the side of the road cars normally travel, determines the way stores direct customers. New Zealand retail stores, for instance, would direct customers to the left. In order to maximise the number of selling opportunities, retailers generally want customers to spend more time in a retail store. However, this must be balanced against customer expectations surrounding convenience, access and realistic waiting times.
The retail service environment plays an important role in affecting the customer's perceptions of the retail experience. The retail environment not only affects quality perceptions, but can also impact on the way that customers navigate their way through the retail space during the retail service encounter.
Layout, directional signage, the placement of furniture, shelves and display space along with the store's ambient conditions all affect patron's passage through the retail service system.
Layout refers to how equipment, shelves and other furnishings are placed and the relationship between them. In a retail setting, accessibility is an important aspect of layout. For example, the grid layout used by supermarkets with long aisles and gondolas at the end displaying premium merchandise or promotional items, minimises the time customers spend in the environment and makes productive use of available space.
For example, the meat cabinet at the supermarket might use a merchandise outpost to suggest a range of marinades or spice rubs to complement particular cuts of meat. As a generalisation, merchandise outposts are updated regularly so that they maintain a sense of novelty. According to Ziethaml et al. Signs and symbols provide cues for directional navigation and also inform about appropriate behaviour within a store.
Functionality refers to extent to which the equipment and layout meet the goals of the customer. The way that brands are displayed is also part of the overall retail design.
Where a product is placed on the shelves has implications for purchase likelihood as a result of visibility and access. Products placed too high or too low on the shelves may not turn over as quickly as those placed at eye level.
Through sensory stimulation retailers can engage maximum emotional impact between a brand and its consumers by relating to both profiles; the goal and experience. Purchasing behaviour can be influenced through the physical evidence detected by the senses of touch, smell, sight, taste and sound.
Coffee shops allow the aroma of coffee to waft into streets so that passers-by can appreciate the smell and perhaps be lured inside.
Clothing garments are placed at arms' reach, allowing customers to feel the different textures of clothing. Within the retail environment, different spaces may be designed for different purposes. Hard floors, such as wooden floors, used in public areas, contrast with carpeted fitting rooms, which are designed to create a sense of homeliness when trying on garments. Peter Alexander , retailer of sleep ware, is renowned for using scented candles in retail stores.
Ambient conditions, such as lighting, temperature and music, are also part of the overall retail environment. Studies have found that "positively valenced music will stimulate more thoughts and feeling than negatively valenced music", hence, positively valenced music will make the waiting time feel longer to the customer than negatively valenced music. The design of a retail store is critical when appealing to the intended market, as this is where first impressions are made.
Certain techniques are used to create a consumer brand experience, which in the long run drives store loyalty. Two different strands of research have investigated shopper behaviour. One strand is primarily concerned with shopper motivations.
Another stream of research seeks to segment shoppers according to common, shared characteristics. To some extent, these streams of research are inter-related, but each stream offers different types of insights into shopper behaviour. Utilitarian motivations are task-related and rational.
For the shopper with utilitarian motives, purchasing is a work-related task that is to be accomplished in the most efficient and expedient manner. On the other hand, hedonic motives refer to pleasure. The shopper with hedonic motivations views shopping as a form of escapism where they are free to indulge fantasy and freedom.
Hedonic shoppers are more involved in the shopping experience. Many different shopper profiles can be identified. Retailers develop customised segmentation analyses for each unique outlet. However, it is possible to identify a number of broad shopper profiles.
One of the most well-known and widely cited shopper typologies is that developed by Sproles and Kendal in the mids. Some researchers have adapted Sproles and Kendall's methodology for use in specific countries or cultural groups. At its most basic level, a retail format is a simple marketplace , that is; a location where goods and services are exchanged.
In some parts of the world, the retail sector is still dominated by small family-run stores, but large retail chains are increasingly dominating the sector, because they can exert considerable buying power and pass on the savings in the form of lower prices. Many of these large retail chains also produce their own private labels which compete alongside manufacturer brands. Considerable consolidation of retail stores has changed the retail landscape, transferring power away from wholesalers and into the hands of the large retail chains.
In Britain and Europe, the retail sale of goods is designated as a service activity. The European Service Directive applies to all retail trade including periodic markets, street traders and peddlers. Retailers carrying highly perishable foodstuffs such as meat, dairy and fresh produce typically require cold storage facilities.
Softline retailers sell goods that are consumed after a single use, or have a limited life typically under three years in they are normally consumed. Soft goods include clothing , other fabrics , footwear , toiletries , cosmetics , medicines and stationery.
Grocery stores, including supermarkets and hypermarkets, along with convenience stores carry a mix of food products and consumable household items such as detergents, cleansers, personal hygiene products. Consumer consumables are collectively known as fast-moving-consumer goods FMCG and represent the lines most often carried by supermarkets, grocers and convenience stores.
For consumers, these are regular purchases and for the retailer, these products represent high turnover product lines. Grocery stores and convenience stores carry similar lines, but a convenience store is often open at times that suit its clientele and may be located for ease of access.
Retailers selling consumer durables are sometimes known as hardline retailers  — automobiles , appliances , electronics , furniture , sporting goods , lumber , etc.
Goods that do not quickly wear out and provide utility over time. For the consumer, these items often represent major purchase decisions. Consumers purchase durables over longer purchase decision cycles.
For instance, the typical consumer might replace their family car every 5 years, and their home computer every 4 years. Specialist retailers operate in many industries such as the arts e. Furniture and homewares retailers are said to be hardline retailers.
Pictured Furniture retailer in Hong Kong. Stores that sell a mix of perishable and consumable goods to cater for household needs are known as grocery stores. A shopping arcade refers to a group of retail outlets operating under a covered walkway.
Arcades are similar to shopping malls, although they typically comprise a smaller number of outlets. Shopping arcades were the evolutionary precursor to the shopping mall, and were very fashionable in the late 19th-century.
Stylish men and women would promenade around the arcade, stopping to window shop, making purchases and also taking light refreshments in one of the arcade's tea-rooms. Arcades offered fashionable men and women opportunities to 'be seen' and to socialise in a relatively safe environment. Arcades continue to exist as a distinct type of retail outlet. Historic 19th-century arcades have become popular tourist attractions in cities around the world.
Amusement arcades , also known as penny arcades in the US, are more modern incarnation of the eighteenth and nineteenth century shopping arcade. An anchor store also known as draw tenant or anchor tenant is a larger store with a good reputation used by shopping mall management to attract a certain volume of shoppers to a precinct. The term, ' bazaar ' can have multiple meanings.
It may refer to a Middle-Eastern market place while a 'penny bazaar' refers to a retail outlet that specialises in inexpensive or discounted merchandise. In the United States a bazaar can mean a "rummage sale" which describes a charity fundraising event held by a church or other community organization and in which either donated used goods are made available for sale.
A Boutique is a small store offering a select range of fashionable goods or accessories. The term, 'boutique', in retail and services, appears to be taking on a broader meaning with popular references to retail goods and retail services such as boutique hotels, boutique beers i. By supplying a wide assortment in a single category for lower prices a category killer retailer can "kill" that category for other retailers. Toys "R" Us, established in , is thought to be the first category killer, dominating the children's toys and games market.
Rival retail stores are forced to reduce their prices if a category killer enters the market in a given geographic area.
Examples of category killers include Toys "R" Us and Australia's Bunnings hardware, DIY and outdoor supplies and Officeworks stationery and supplies for the home office and small office. Some category killers redefine the category. For example, Australia's Bunnings began as a hardware outlet, but now supplies a broad range of goods for the home handyman or small tradesman, including kitchen cabinetry, craft supplies, gardening needs and outdoor furniture.
Similarly Officeworks straddles the boundary between stationery supplies, office furniture and digital communications devices in its quest to provide for all the needs of the retail consumer and the small, home office. Chain store is one of a series of stores owned by the same company and selling the same or similar merchandise.
Concept stores are similar to speciality stores in that they are very small in size, and only stock a limited range of brands or a single brand. They are typically operated by the brand that controls them. However, a concept store goes beyond merely selling products, and instead offers an immersive customer experience built around the way that a brand fits with the customer's lifestyle. A co-operative store ; also known as a co-op or coop, is a venture owned and operated by consumers to meet their social, economic and cultural needs.
A convenience store provides limited amount of merchandise at above average prices with a speedy checkout. This store is ideal for emergency and immediate purchase consumables as it often operates with extended hours, stocking every day. Department stores are very large stores offering an extensive assortment of both "soft" and "hard" goods which often bear a resemblance to a collection of specialty stores.
A retailer of such store carries a variety of categories and has a broad assortment of goods at moderate prices. They offer considerable customer service. A destination store is one that customers will initiate a trip specifically to visit, sometimes over a large area. These stores are often used to " anchor " a shopping mall or plaza, generating foot traffic, which is capitalized upon by smaller retailers.
Retailers that aim at one particular segment e. Discount stores tend to offer a wide array of products and services, but they compete mainly on price. They offer extensive assortments of merchandise at prices lower than other retailers and are designed to be affordable for the market served. In the past, retailers sold less fashion-oriented brands. Maxx and Marshalls and Ross Stores are discount store operations increasingly offering fashion-oriented brands on a larger scale.
The customer can shop and order through the internet and the merchandise is dropped at the customer's doorstep or an e-tailer. In some cases, e-retailers use drop shipping technique.
They accept the payment for the product but the customer receives the product directly from the manufacturer or a wholesaler. This format is ideal for customers who do not want to travel to retail stores and are interested in home shopping. A general merchandise retailer stocks a variety of products in considerable depth. The types of product offerings vary across this category.
Department stores, convenience stores, hypermarkets and warehouse clubs are all examples of general merchandise retailers. A general store is a store that supplies the main needs of the local community and is often located in outback or rural areas with low population densities. In areas of very low population density, a general store may be the only retail outlet within hundreds of miles.
The general store carries a very broad product assortment; from foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals through to hardware and fuel. In addition, a general store may provide essential services such as postal services, banking services, news agency services and may also act as an agent for farm equipment and stock-food suppliers. As the name implies, a give-away shop provides goods for free.
There are several different models of give-away shop in popular use. One is where goods are free to any shopper; an alternative is that shoppers must provide a product before they can take a product and a third variation is where consumers have the option of taking goods for free or paying any amount that they can afford. For example, Australia's restaurant group Lentil as Anything operates on a pay whatever you feel is right model. Hawkers also known as a peddlers , costermongers or street vendors; refer to a vendor of merchandise that is readily portable.
Hawkers typically operate in public places such as streets, squares, public parks or gardens or near the entrances of high traffic venues such as zoos, music and entertainment venues, but may also call on homes for door-to-door seling. A high street store is a term used widely in the United Kingdom where more than 5, High Streets where a variety of stores congregate along a main road.
A hypermarket also known as hypermart provides variety and huge volumes of exclusive merchandise at low margins. A mall has a range of retail shops at a single building or outlet, arranged on a single level or multiple levels.
A shopping mall typically includes one or more anchor stores. A small retail outlet owned and operated by an individual or family. Focuses on a relatively limited and selective set of products. A Pop-up retail store is a temporary retail space that opens for a short period of time, possibly opening to sell a specific run of merchandise or for a special occasion or holiday period.
The key to the success of a pop-up is novelty in the merchandise. A Marketplace is defined as venue for the retail sales of all products, packed and unpacked where the sale is to end users. Globally, different terms may be used to refer to a retail market. A market square is a city square where traders set up temporary stalls and buyers browse for purchases. In England, such markets operate on specific days of the week. This kind of market is very ancient, and countless such markets are still in operation around the world.
Pricing is usually not the priority when consumers are deciding upon a speciality store; factors such as branding image, selection choice, and purchasing assistance are seen as important. A supermarket is a self-service store consisting mainly of grocery and limited products on non-food items. Variety stores offer extremely low-cost goods, with a vast array of selection.
The downfall to this is that the items are not very high quality. A vending machine is an automated piece of equipment wherein customers can drop the money in the machine which dispenses the customer's selection. The vending machine is a pure self-service option.
Machines may carry a phone number which customers can call in the event of a fault. Some stores take a no frills approach, while others are "mid-range" or "high end", depending on what income level they target. Warehouse clubs are membership-based retailers that usually sell a wide variety of merchandise, in which customers may buy large, wholesale quantities of the store's products, which makes these clubs attractive to both bargain hunters and small business owners.
The clubs are able to keep prices low due to the no-frills format of the stores. In addition, customers may be required to pay annual membership fees in order to shop. Warehouse stores are retailers housed in warehouses, and offer low-cost, often high-quantity goods with minimal services, e.
Retailers can opt for a format as each provides different retail mix to its customers based on their customer demographics, lifestyle and purchase behaviour.
An effective format will dtermine how products are display products, as well as how target customers are attracted. To achieve and maintain a foothold in an existing market, a prospective retail establishment must overcome the following hurdles:. China is currently the largest retail market in the world. Retail stores may or may not have competitors close enough to affect their pricing, product availability, and other operations.
In all countries the main competition was domestic, not foreign. Between and there have been 46, mergers or acquisitions conducted globally in the retail sector either acquirer or target from the retail industry. These deals cumulate to an overall known value of around 2.
However the all-time high in terms of number of deals was in with more than 2, deals. In terms of added value set the record with bil. Here is a list of the top ten largest deals ranked by volume in the Retail Industry: The United States retail sector features the largest number of large, lucrative retailers in the world. Since , the U. Census Bureau has published the Retail Sales report every month.
Retail firms provide data on the dollar value of their retail sales and inventories. A sample of 12, firms is included in the final survey and 5, in the advanced one. The increase was generated foremost by the discount stores and supermarket segments, and was driven by the skyrocketing prices of foodstuffs. National accounts show a combined total of retail and wholesale trade, with hotels and restaurants. In all four of the latter countries, this fraction is an increase over , but there are other countries where the sector has declined since , sometimes in absolute terms, where other sectors have replaced its role in the economy.
In China the sector has grown from 7. Emarketer predicts China will have the largest retail market in the world in In , China became the largest retail market in the world. Among retailers and retails chains a lot of consolidation has appeared over the last couple of decades. A French itinerant vendor depicted selling medicine from a stage.
Goods displayed in the souq of Marrakech. Influential thinkers in sales and retail: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Retail sales. For the comic strip by Norm Feuti, see Retail comic strip.
Behavioral targeting Brand ambassador Broadcasting Display advertising Drip marketing In-game advertising Mobile advertising Native advertising New media Online advertising Out-of-home advertising Point of sale Printing Product demonstration Promotional merchandise Publication Visual merchandising Web banner Word-of-mouth. Food retail includes charcuteries, butcheries, delicatessens, green groceries, provedores etc. A store that retails a mix of household needs and is open long hours is a convenience store.
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The Routledge Companion to Marketing History. Perhaps the only substantiated type of retail marketing practice that evolved from Neolithic times to the present was the itinerant tradesman also known as peddler, packman or chapman. These forerunners of travelling salesmen roamed from village to village bartering stone axes in exchange for salt or other goods Dixon, Cheshire Penguin, , p.
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Journal of Consumer Affairs , Vol. Retrieved 22 May Accessed July 10, Evolution and Potential PDF. Retrieved 26 April Retrieved 18 August Retrieved 16 May Archived from the original on Retrieved 9 July Fitness wear Lingerie Sporting goods Swimwear. Chemical Oil and gas Oil exploration and production Oilfield service Public utilities Solar thermal power. Asset management Banks international investment Hedge funds Private equity Stock exchanges Venture capital.
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