A Relatively Brief History of Roulette
Here is an extract from the memoirs of Casanova dated Definition of 'roulette' Take these florins, and go and play pronounce with them. The Tibetan game apparently came from China but unfortunately, the method of play is not recorded. He wanted to throw his big boots into the net say the tired air of the head of a family, and to gamble with the hunters when they dropped in of an evening and played a sort of home-made roulette with a tin roulette and a nail. Hoca appears to have been a game played with cards with thirty points and thirty balls and was probably more of a lottery card game than something like roulette.
One particular game is pretty similar to modern-day roulette. Soldiers would draw symbols on the inside of a shield, then put it face-down on the ground and place an arrow next to it. Then they would spin the shield and bet on which symbol will stop in front of the arrow. Roulette is undoubtedly of French origin, hence the name. However, the design and gameplay are clearly influenced by two quite similar games, popular in 17th century Europe.
Blaise Pascal was a famous gambler, so he undoubtedly knew about them while creating his version of the wheel. Gambling was not very popular at the time, mostly due to the fact that it was illegal in many countries in Europe. The late 18th century, however, saw the introduction of strict gambling laws, thus reviving wagering games in France and the rest of Europe. Meanwhile, Prince Charles of Monaco was facing some money issues and had the brilliant idea to use the rising popularity of gambling to solve some of them.
He opened several gambling houses in Monaco, where roulette was prominently featured. Consequently, the game became really popular among aristocrats and royalty. The roulette that was played in those gambling houses was almost identical to the one we are playing today — even the betting options were almost the same. The numbers went from , there were one zero and one double zero pockets, and the colours were red and black. They are the ones responsible for removing the double zero pocket and essentially inventing what we know today as European Roulette.
Francois and Louis did their great deed in At the time, however, gambling was again illegal in France, so the two had to find another place where they can promote their game. They moved to Hamburg, Germany, and introduced their new roulette game to the gambling community there. As you might expect, the feedback was more than positive — the popularity of the game spread like wildfire.
Having only one zero slot in a roulette game causes the house edge to drop to 2. In comparison, roulette with two zero slots has an average casino advantage of 5. The lower odds and the higher return-to-player percentages caused the single zero roulette to become increasingly popular, and eventually replace the double zero variation. Soon after, they set out to create the luxurious Monte Carlo Casino Resort. The resort attracted the richest and most esteemed Europeans and reintroduced them to the game of roulette.
After that, gambling games and especially roulette became really popular throughout the entire Europe. Roulette was introduced to the US by European settlers who landed in Louisiana in the early 19th century. However, things did not go as smoothly as they did in Europe.
Casino proprietors were not happy with the 5. Consequently, players got annoyed at the low earnings and quickly lost interest in the game. Surprisingly, the gambling community in America rejected the single zero roulette almost unanimously. The double zero version eventually became the accepted form of play — and today it is known as American Roulette.
Despite the higher house edge that they had to deal with, Americans enjoyed roulette quite a lot. However, they eventually lost interest in it and started playing games that you can actually beat — like blackjack, for example.
Prior to rolling the ball, people place bets on what number will come up by laying down chips on a betting mat, the precise location of the chips indicating the bet being made. Roulette is a game of French origin and on a traditional table, the French terms on the betting area are still used even in English speaking areas. However, on most US tables, English terms and a slightly different style of mat are used. Much of the interest in Roulette derives from the the number of different bets and associated odds that can be made.
Here is a list:. Incidentally, Passe is so named because the ball has "passed" the centrepoint. Manque is French for "failed" and is used because the ball has failed to pass Twelve first numbers, Twelve middle numbers, Twelve last numbers. Place bet in one of the squares marked accordingly. The stake is placed in the square at the end of one of the three columns of twelve numbers. Place the stake on the intersection of the edge of two rows of three numbers to bet on the 6 numbers in those 2 rows.
A set of four numbers. Place the stake at the intersection of the square of four numbers to be bet upon. A row of three numbers. Place the stake over the line forming the end of the row of three numbers to be bet upon. Place the stake across the line dividing the two numbers to be bet upon.
Place the stake in the box showing the number concerned. It is allowable to bet on zero or double zero. Ironically or perhaps prophetically, the sum of the numbers on a roulette wheel is , which is the number of the beast the devil in the Bible's book of revelation.
It is often said that the "double zero" wheel was invented in America. This is rubbish - the original roulette wheel of modern times as played in France around the turn of the century has both zeros and the Americans simply used that wheel. French roulette as described by at the end of the Victorian era, has both the zero and the "double zero".
The zero was coloured red and also counted as "Pair" and "Manque"; the double zero was black and also counted as "Impair" and "Passe". If the ball fell into one of these numbers, all lost stakes were taken by the bank but if the bet was matched by virtue of being Pair, Impair, Rouge, Noir, Passe or Manque, instead of being won, the stake was imprisoned until the next spin of the wheel. On that subsequent turn, the stake is either lost or if the ball matches the bet again, the stake is merely returned to the gambler without any profit.
Obviously, these two extra numbers are the primary factor giving the bank the edge over an extended period of time. But just as importantly, if you look closely at the odds given above, it can be seen straight away that they also are skewed in the bank's favour.
For instance, a single number stake pays odds of 35 to 1, but clearly as there are 38 compartments that the ball can fall into, the correct odds are in fact 37 to 1. These days zeros are not coloured red or black but a clearly distinguishing green.
In Latin America and Europe, Roulette is the most popular casino game and the reason for this is that the wheels in Monte Carlo, Deauville, San Remo, London and elsewhere in these countries have only the single zero which means that the cut taken by the Casino is pretty reasonable. There are 2 variants of European roulette. Those casinos playing the "En Prison" rule have kept something of the old game - if the ball lands on zero, and only if your bet was an evens stake, the bet is imprisoned and the result determined on the next spin.
If it lands on zero twice, the imprisoned bets are lost. Alternatively, premises playing the "La partage" rule simply return to the gambler half the stake when a zero turns up. In North America and the Caribbean, roulette wheels have a double zero, like the original French game and worse, all bets except a direct bet on the selected zero are lost when either zero turns up. This gives significantly worse odds for the punter and thus increases the cut made by the Casino over time.
This is probably why in this region, Roulette is the third most played casino game after Craps and Black Jack. Free printable rules of Roulette here.
You can buy small plastic cheap Roulette sets from many toy and games shops. There aren't really any High street stores that specialise in the game. On the Internet, Masters Traditional Games has an extensive roulette range. Roulette is a fashionable game and a multi-million dollar Internet gambling industry, and there are dozens of online Roulette websites such as CasinosOnline.
Aside from that you can visit a real life casino or buy a home roulette set - proper roulette is played with money but children can just use matches or chocolates! The Online Guide to Traditional Games.
Above is an antique EO Table. To the right is a Thomas Rowlandson cartoon of the period showing a bit of a cuffuffle around such a table. Earliest viable evidence of Roulette Documentary evidence indicates that the game of roulette sprung up in the 18th century. To the left is a cartoon of a Roulette game c. What is Roly Poly? Here is a list: Roulette Zeros and the Banker's edge It is often said that the "double zero" wheel was invented in America.